Future of this Research (6)

What can come out of this research is pretty broad. It has been a highly theoretical work mostly focusing on, “what is” and “how is”. The interviews I held and the literature I read gave me viable examples on how accessibility is a necessity if we want to achieve good and inclusive design.
It is important to note that although accessibility elements are mostly focused on people with disabilities, the whole user group benefits from them. Because these methods and guidelines are aimed at making an interface/design more usable and more human centred. So it is safe to say that whatever we as designers do, if we do it “accessible”, everyone benefits.

Hence an interaction method focused specifically on elderly can’t be the main goal here. A universality is the main goal, being inclusive and designing accordingly so that the elderly can use our design, while still being used in the same sense by the rest of the population.

This research can be expanded even more in the goal of exploring more examples and establishing guidelines for designers who work in this area. Similar guidelines already exist and they can be improved in the sense of commonality and applicability. A similar outcome can be found in the article “Elderly in the Digital Era. Theoretical Perspectives on Assistive Technologies”

Another future outcome could be creating a digital interaction method to tackle certain issues faced by the elderly, without losing universality. An example for this can be seen in the article “User interface based on natural interaction design for seniors”.

Another interesting exploration could be comparing the two countries in this matter which I am connected to; Turkey and Austria. How do they compare in their practices and how do their senior population compare? How can these differences and similarities between two countries’ populations can effect a designer’s point of view. Would these populations require totally different interaction methods or could there be one single solution? How does the cultural aspect of everything change this matter?

Analog / Digital – Colors

All over history numerous personalities in arts and science have dealt with the science of colors. This science on the one hand deals with the colors of the spectrum of light as well as with the (human) ability to perceive colours in combination with charecteristics of light under specific circumstances and surrounding factors.

Besides controversial discussions about the spectrum of colors and the “most probable“ ground colors or „unique hues“ adressing the three color receptors (sensitive to short-, middle- and long-wave rays) of the human eye, it is clear that in digital and analog media we use different systems to create specific colors for representation.

Additive color mixing

Speaking of digital media and the use of screens and projectors, the colorsystem is of additive nature. Every screen is set up with a specific amount of pixels, each containing three segments or phosphores – red, green and blue, which make the primary colors. So for red color on the screen only the red segment is actively emitting (red) light, while for blue color only the blue one and for green light only the green segment is actively lit via cathode rays. Combining two light emitting segments results in secondary colors – cyan, yellow and magenta – and combining all three segments results in the tertiary, achromatic color white. The second achromatic color black however appears on screen where no pixels are emitting light.

Combining the three primary colors at various levels of intensity or luminance makes it possible to display almost every color of the spectrum of light.

However, according to Küppel, the phosphores cannot fulfill the exact theoretic requirements and thus the secondary colors, especially yellow and cyan, appear slightly dull and „whiteish“ on screen.

Subtractive color mixing

For analog media such as print and (printed) photography we speak of subtractive color mixing using transparent colors. Here the primary colors are cyan, magenta and yelllow. Applied and combined on white (!) backgrounds these colors absorb specific wave-lenghts of light rays and result in a color stimulus we perceive after the light is reflected by the background that’s capable of reflecting the whole spectrum of color. In addition, to create the perception of the right color, not only the background has to be white, but also the light source itself has to be white. If the color spectrum of light is shifted, or the background has a (slight) colorful hue, the appearance of mixed colors will not satisfy demands.

As cyan absorbs long-wave rays (= red), it fully stimulates the receptors for green and blue on the retina. Magenta absorbs middle-wave rays (=green) stimulating red and blue receptors, while yellow absorbs short-wave rays (=blue) stimulating green and red receptors.

In subtractive mixing the secondary colors originate from the overlapping of primary colors. Thus magenta and yellow make red, magenta and cyan make blue, yellow and cyan make green and all the primary colors combined resolve into the tertiary color black, also referred to as „key“.

While the primary colors used for printing appear brillant and luminous, due to misabsorbtions the secondary colors are not as satisfying and appear rather dull and tainted.

Integrated color mixing

In addition to the use of transparent colors for print, Küppers states that for other analog techniques like painting on colored, not white backgrounds, opaque colors are needed. These colors contain specific pigments that directly reflect the light at specific wave-lengths. To mix these opaque colors we need the eight basic colors – red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow, white and black – as due to the lack of transparence overlapping basic colors will not result into a mixed color.

When mixing opaque colors, according to Küppers, the neighbouring colors in the spectrum can be mixed and resolve into new colors. Adding grey tones between the achromatic colors black and white makes it possible to create a wide range of hues and colors.


Farbe verstehen und beherrschen – Harald Küppers, 2004.

How Covid-19 redesigned the world?

A couple days ago, I read a book, where history was not defined as chronicle, but as a series of rare bright events, that we perceive as abnormal. While, in fact, such events change our world and continue history more, then everyday life.

Covid-19 came into our life and will not leave it soon. Seems, that everything has already been written and said. But I propose to look at how it redesigns our lives in real time.

The COVID-19 pandemic has made major changes in our lives. Against this background, in particular, the digitalization process accelerated: within a few months, the number of people who work from home and shop on the Internet has sharply increased. At the same time, technologies appeared to stop the spread of the virus, which are essentially technologies for effective government surveillance of citizens.

The usual meetings were replaced by Zoom parties. Probably, everyone has visited at least one. Not to mention Zoom-birthdays, Zoom-proms, Zoom-weddings, and Zoom-all-all-all. No wonder the company earned more in the second quarter of 2020 than in the whole of 2019. In this situation, video calls began to be used not only for work and study, but also for leisure. At the beginning of the pandemic, online concerts were very popular. There were even online tours, online exhibitions, and online performances. But by the end of the year, this trend has lost its relevance.

In the spring of 2020, the world’s demand for psychotherapy has grown at a record high. The jump occurred in late March and early April, when the borders were closed and a self-isolation regime was declared. Sales of plant-based sedatives increased. In families, conflicts escalated, which had not surfaced before, because people were busy outside the house all day. Another stress factor was economic instability. Neurologists have found that people who are prone to anxiety and auto-suggestion began to detect false symptoms of the coronavirus.

The services went online. Cinemas, gyms and cafes, if they work, only in the fresh air. 

Now people pay more attention to their relatives, take care of their own health and appreciate the time spent together. To be sure, the pandemic has given a dramatic boost to changes that none of us expected: appears new words in the lexicon, technology and medicine began to develop more rapidly.

The world has been exposed by drastic redesign. And we will see the consequences later.

Romanes (7)

Roma-Gruppen überlieferten ihre Geschichten vor allem mündlich. Die alphabetische Schrift wurde vor dem 20. Jahrhundert zur Kommunikation mit Nicht-Rom_nja zu wirtschaftlichen und offiziellen Anliegen genutzt.

Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts begannen Schriftsteller*innen und Dichter*innen vermehrt ihre Werke schriftlich zu verfassen. Dies lag einem neuen Selbstbewusstsein zu Grunde, mit dem sich Rom_nja und Sinti_ze für eine kulturelle und politische Anerkennung und Eigenständigkeit einsetzen.[1] Themen waren vor allem die „Verfolgung, Diskriminierung und jahrhundertelang tradierte symbolische Repräsentationen.“[2]

Die Texte sind in der Sprache Romanes aber auch zahlreichen anderen Sprachen wie zum Beispiel Russisch oder Tschechisch verfasst.[3] Romanes ist mit dem indischen Sankrit[4] verwandt.

Mit der Gründung der Vereinigung der Roma-Schriftsteller wurde zwischen 1990 und 1992 „mehr Roma-Literatur veröffentlicht als in der ganzen 600-jährigen Geschichte der Roma auf dem Gebiet der Slowakischen und Tschechischen Republik“[5]. Zuvor wurde die „Verwendung [von Romanes] im öffentlichen Raum sanktioniert und […] von mehreren Roma selbst abgelehnt“.[6]

Die Welle der Romani-Literatur lies das „sprachliche und kulturelle Erbe […] revitalisieren“. [7] Teilweise wurden AutorInnen aber auch von Roma mit „traditionellen Sichtweisen“[8] kritisiert, da sie Themen wie Geschlechtergewalt aufarbeiteten.

Der Begriff Romani-Litaratur ist umstritten. Manche Autor*innen wollen sich der „Zugehörigkeit und Identifikation“ mit der „ethischen Identität“ entziehen, „da die Gefahr besteht, dass ihre Werke nur unter dem Blickwinkel „Roma-Literatur“ bzw. – exotisch – als ‚Zigeuner-Literatur` rezipiert und andere Komponenten ihres literarischen Werks vernachlässigt werden.“[9]  

Wichtige Inhalte der Roma-Texte sind „romano čačipen (Wahrheit / Realität)“ ebenso wie das „Geheimnisvolles und Rätselhaftes“. [10] „Die Kraft eines Wortes wird in der traditionellen Roma-Gemein-schaft viel mehr geschätzt – ein Wort kann als guter oder böser Zauber wirken“.[11] Magische Wörter sind beispielsweise „jilo (Herz) / phuterel o jilo (das Herz öffnen), jekhetane (zusammen), phrala (Brüder), manuš (Mensch)“.[12]

[1] Vgl. Romarchive: Roma, ein `schriftloses Volk`? https://www.romarchive.eu/de/literature/roma-and-writing/ [31.01.2021]

[2] Beate Eder-Jordan: „Imagining it otherwise“. Der (un)sichtbare Paradigmen-wechsel im Bereich der Romani-Literaturen und -Kulturen:  https://www.uibk.ac.at/iup/buch_pdfs/roma-und-travellers/10.152032936-95-0-4.pdf [31.01.2021]

[3]Vgl. Romarchive: Literatur: https://www.romarchive.eu/de/literature/[31.01.2021]

[4] Bogdal: Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. S.171

[5] Ebd. S.62.

[6] Beate Eder-Jordan: „Imagining it otherwise“. Der (un)sichtbare Paradigmen-wechsel im Bereich der Romani-Literaturen und -Kulturen:S.62

[7] Ebd. S. 63.

[8] Ebd. S.63.

[9] Ebd.:S.60

[10] Ebd. S.54

[11] Milena Hübschmannová: Meine Begegnungen mit dem Šukar Laviben der Roma in Roma und Travellers. Identitäten im Wandel.  S.365.

[12] Ebd.

Are Illustrations and Photography interchangeable?

Illustrationen sind besonders wirksam bei Abstraktionen, Vereinfachungen oder humorvollen Themen und bei der Darstellung des Abstrakten oder Fiktiven. Fotos hingegen eigenen sich bei der Abbildung bzw. Schaffung von Realität. Sie erzeugen echte Nähe und Identifikation. Beide Werkzeuge sind auf jeden Fall starke Träger für Emotionen. Und positive Emotionen sind die ersten Träger für Kaufimpulse von Kunden.

Vor allem im Produktdesign wirkt Illustration komplett anders als Fotografie. Hier kann grafische Illustration oft eine viel stärkere Wirkung erzielen und dem Produkt mehr Persönlichkeit geben. Fotografie auf der Verpackung selbst lässt die Produkte in den meisten Fällen plump und qualitativ eher minderwertig erscheinen.

Im Vergleich dazu schafft es dieses Package Design von “Glass Canned Wines” erfolgreich Fotografie in ihr Sujet einzubauen. Durch die stark reduzierte Formensprache und das Gedankenspiel, das mit den realen Darstellungen der Fotos unterstützt wird, funktioniert dieses Beispiel extrem gut und schafft es auch Qualität zu kommunizieren.

Gerade bei abstrakten Themen oder der Darstellung von Analogien oder Überhöhungen sind Illustrationen besser geeignet. Und manche Inhalte würden als Foto ziemlich schlecht aussehen oder einfach nicht ausreichen, um eine bestimmte Botschaft zu übermitteln.

Fotografie kann mit den heutigen Technologien jedoch auch super erfolgreich und relativ wirtschaftlich zur Darstellung des Fiktiven eingesetzt werden.

In dem Werbespot von Audible Deutschland entstehen durch Fotografie und manipulierte Visuals Sujets, die als Inspirationsquelle dienen, die Phantasie beflügeln und starke Empfindungen auslösen.

Wie bereits erwähnt, ergeben sich aus den Eigenschaften der Medien „natürliche“ Einsatzgebiete. Wird jedoch z.B. Illustration in einem Bereich eingesetzt, in dem Klassischerweise Fotografie verwendet wird, ergeben sich sowohl Vorteile als auch Nachteile. Als klarer Vorteil, kann die Generation von Aufmerksamkeit genannt werden, da solche Sujets oft provokativ und ungewohnt wirken können. 

Webseite von Anwaltskanzlei Wolf Theiss
Webseite von Anwaltskanzlei Wolf Theiss

In der Kommunikation einer Anwaltskanzlei ist es wichtig professionell aufzutreten, weswegen Illustration als bildgebendes Mittel nicht unbedingt die beste oder erste Wahl ist. An diesem Beispiel sieht man jedoch, wie erfolgreich grafische Illustration hier eingesetzt werden kann. Aufgrund des Stils und der minimalistischen und reduzierten Sprache in Kombination mit Schwarz wirkt das Auftreten professionell. Die Illustrationen von Christoph Niemann fügen dem Ganzen auf alle Fälle noch Persönlichkeit und Charakter hinzu und helfen dabei Werte der Kanzlei zu vermitteln und generieren klarerweise auch Aufmerksamkeit. Der Einsatz von Illustration macht die Gestaltung informativ und unterhaltsam.

Illustration zur Darstellung des Realen:

Vor allem bei Darstellungen von Essen in Kochbüchern oder ähnlichem wird Illustration klassischerweise eher nicht verwendet – hier tut sich Illustration schwer “Reales” abzubilden. Wie kann das Problem der Wiedergabe von Realität bzw. Ausdruck von Fiktivem gelöst werden? 

Einerseits funktioniert Illustration als visuelle Sprache wenn die Darstellungen extrem abstrahiert werden, wodurch es natürlicherweise zu einem Stimmungsbild bzw. einer Dekoration wird. Andererseits auch in Fällen wo man die Gerichte bereits kennt und weiß wie sie aussehen sollen/werden und wenn sie keinen Anspruch auf Realismus bzw. Wiedergabe der Realität haben. An diesem Beispiel eines illustrierten Kochbuchs sieht man, wie gut Illustrationen Stimmung und Emotionen abbilden können. Da es um traditionelle deutsche Küche geht, die die meisten Menschen innerhalb Deutschlands wahrscheinlich kennen, funktioniert diese abstrahierte Form auch extrem gut.

Das oben gezeigte Beispiel von Anni von Bergen ist ein ausschließlich mit Illustrationen bebilderter Rezepte-Reiseführer.

Diese Assoziation von Illustration mit Fiktivem kann auch relativ leicht gelöst werden. Darstellungen von Essen oder Gerichten funktionieren auch, wenn es super detaillierte und fotorealistische Illustrationen sind. In solchen Fällen kann das auch in Kochbüchern funktionieren. Wenn man die Ansprüche, die Menschen an ein Medium stellen kennt und die Schwächen bzw. Nachteile, die Illustration in diesem Kontext möglicherweise haben kann, ausgleicht funktioniert auch Illustration in diesem Bereich super.  

Ein weiteres Beispiel sind Magazincover für Modezeitschriften, die traditionellerweise ausschließlich mit Fotografie bespielt werden. Wie man hier sieht kann der Einsatz von Illustration gezielt als Statement verwendet werden. In der Januar-Ausgabe 2020, machte die Vogue Italia darauf aufmerksam, wie viel Energie Modeproduktionen verbrauchen und wurde aus diesem Grund komplett illustriert. Durch den Einsatz von Illustration bekommt das Design eine ganz andere Sprache, regt eher zum Nachdenken an, bekommt einen künstlerischeren Charakter und steht für eine Idee, ein Konzept und in diesem Fall eine Kritik.


  • https://page-online.de/bild/zauberhaft-illustriertes-kochbuch-fuer-deutsche-kueche/?
  • https://page-online.de/bild/vogue-italia-geht-radikalen-schritt-illustrationen-statt-fotografie/
  • https://www.wolftheiss.com
  • https://www.glasscannedwines.com
  • https://dribbble.com/shots/8190185-Asian-Food-Illustration

AR for product information

The product is the basis and often the only connection from a brand to their customer. This is why it is important to give the user the best experience with or while using the product. But before that, the user needs to buy the product and especially he needs reasons to buy it.
In the best case, this is reached by convincing the user because he feels he need this certain product. Design Thinkers would say, you need to create a whole user experience about the product to make your clients happy.

This usere experience starts by collecting information about the product. Why does the consumer need it and what does it have to offer?
While typical medium for this steps were the seller with a personal service, the internet or friends and acquaintance, Augmented Reality is a new way to give the user a excellent and individual experience to gain information about the product.

This kind of experience can be handled by many ways. No matter if the custumers smartphone, glasses or a headset is used to give this experience, no matter if it can be used at home, on a website or even at a shop, this will bring the product information to a next level. And not only in a fun way but also giving the feeling of being a advanced, forward-looking and competently brand or company.

Also most of the new technology poduct information medium are tending the user to buy online. Thinking of the internet where you can read blogs or recommandations for mostly all products, buying the product aferwards with only one click is very confertable but also a big issue for our local shops and the economy of small brands and companys. With giving them a digital experience via AR but in the shop, it will probably make them coming to the shops and trying out this nice and fun experience. Obviously there is a high chance of buying the product in locally in the shop afterwards.

A nice example for this is the Toyota AR experience of 2019 where they presented their new C-HR model by a AR app. It gave the customer a experience of the inner systems of the car as they where overlayed on a real ohysical car. Additional to that, the customer could even interact with the car to get more information about motor, battery and fuel tank.

Toyota – vehicle demo

Thinking one step further, this kind of information about the product can also fix problems in future. If there are light problems with your products, the AR app could offer solutions while scanning the product and offer the customer a guid for fixing. This could not only optimze the service time but also saves costs for the customer and time for the brand.

The goal about product information with AR
When doing just a small research about this topic now, there are many and more applications which already ofer some kind of information about a product already. But this can also go in the wrong direction. A customer who is taking out his smartphone, maybe even downloading an app and scanning the product then will be dissappointet by just getting informations about the product which he could find out without scanning the product as well. Thinking of a food product which shows if the product is gluten free or diary free but with also having exactly this labels on the pagage already will make the user being frustrated and not using it any more. In the worse case the user would even not buying the product because of that.

Also sending the user to a social media platform or something like this is fun for the first time but would not make the user use it regularly.

Also for products where many information could be given but the surface on the pagaging is limited – for example when thinking of wine bottles – AR is a great way, to give as many information als needed to convince the customer to buy the bottle.

Regarding the current situation while touching a product in a supermarket which could have been touched before by others is the thing you absolutly want to avoid, those AR product informations become a new relevance.

So COVID 19 could have a big impact for using AR to present your product and information about it while using your own smartphone.

Product information with Augmented Reality
Smarter product information with augmented reality
Augmented Reality (AR) for holographic product information in times of COVID19

Artificial Intelligence (AI) | part 2

AI in the Automotive Industry

Artificial Intelligence is getting more and more important in the automotive industry. The value of AI in automotive is expected to approach 10 billion Euros in 2024. When talking about Artificial Intelligence and cars, most people are just thinking about self-driving cars. Despite the fact that AI is a key technology to enable cars to drive autonomously, there are a lot more AI-powered services available in modern connected cars.

All Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) like emergency braking, blind spot monitoring and lane keeping systems also depend on Artificial Intelligence. These systems are not only providing more safety and more convenience on the road, they are also helping customers, automakers and regulators to build trust in AI. This trust will play an important role when AI takes over the control of the vehicle in self-driving cars.

But Artificial Intelligence is not limited to driving features. It has the potential to optimize every process along the automotive customer journey. Some processes are already relying on AI and would not be possible without it.

Driver Monitoring

Artificial Intelligence is not just able to monitor the road and surroundings. It is also improving the safety by keeping an eye on the driver. AI is able to analyze if the eyes are on the road, how distracted the driver is and if the driver is getting tired. Depending on the status it could inform the driver to keep the eyes on the road, propose a small break at the next gas station or even safely stop the car when the driver is not reacting because of a serious medical problem.

Another example for improved safety could be the use of AI during accidents. Artificial Intelligence is able to change the seat position to a better position and how the airbags are going off depending on the position, height and weight of the driver milliseconds before the impact.

Driver Recognition

AI is also able to detect if there is a driver in the vehicle, which driver is in the car and if the driver is actually allowed to drive the car. This feature is especially helpful when different members of a family are sharing one car. The car recognizes the driver and automatically adjusts the seating position, mirrors, ambient lighting, default temperature, favorite playlist and many more. Artificial Intelligence will be one of the key factors of vehicle personalization in the future.

source: https://www.futurebridge.com/blog/driver-monitoring-from-essential-safety-to-passenger-wellness/

AI Cloud Services

Connected vehicles need a lot of data for delivering all the services. AI powered platforms ensure that this data is available to the services all the time.

Traffic Forecasting

Artificial Intelligence is especially useful for analyzing a lot of data in a short time. AI powered traffic forecasting is taking traffic data from the past and predicts the future traffic situation based on data from similar days, time and conditions. It also helps with faster options for avoiding unexpected traffic jams.

Predictive Maintenance

Traditional cars are alerting their drivers with check-engine lights, oil lights and other combinations of lights in the dashboard when the damage has already happened. Sometimes this is just too late and accidents occur because of faulty parts. Connected vehicles are already monitoring all sensors with the help of AI and detect problems before they affect the driving. Artificial Intelligence is also able to monitor the wear and tear of critical parts based on the driving style, road conditions and mileage. This monitoring could also inform the driver that a specific part is going to break soon and should be replaced before something happens. In addition to hardware maintenance, automakers can also provide over the air (OTA) software updates for fixing bugs in the software, improving the functionality of the ADAS or changing the design of the infotainment without the need to visit a dealership first.

source: https://www.vector.com/de/de/know-how/technologien/automotive-connectivity/automotive-ota/

Car Manufacturing

But the applications of AI in automotive are not limited to the vehicle itself. Artificial Intelligence also has the potential to optimize different processes during the manufacturing of the car.

Assembly Line Robots

While assembly line robots were already used in the 1960s, they are now also helping the humans and working with them instead of alongside them on different steps of the process. Assembly line robots are not only shortening the time a car spends in the assembly line, they are also improving safety and helping to avoid injuries like back problems due to heavy lifting. Robots are already automatically moving materials, different car parts and the car itself between the assembly lines in a lot of factories. With the further development of AI, these robots will be optimized even further.

Quality Control

Another important part during the manufacturing process is the quality control. AI is not only able to detect irregularities in materials, it is also able to identify faulty parts before they are used in a car and predict if it is cheaper to repair or replace the part completely. Image recognition also helps with identifying flaws during the manufacturing process like scratches in the paint job or small damages in the bodywork.

Supply Chain Automation

Artificial Intelligence also allows automakers to improve their supply chain management. It is able to predict the materials needed for the upcoming production based on the orders, optimize storage in the warehouses and even check the quality of the delivered parts and determine if they are good enough for using them in a car.

Automotive Insurance / Insurtech

Insurance companies are also starting to use AI for risk assessment. They are creating risk profiles based on personalized data from previously owned and rented cars, driving style and accidents. Based on this risk profile Artificial Intelligence is able to predict how safe the driver is going to be and give every driver a personalized offer. This process could significantly lower insurance rates for safe drivers, while others may have to spend more than they are spending now.

AI will also help with filing claims after an accident. A special app could guide drivers with detailed instructions after an accident and explain exactly which videos, photos and descriptions will be necessary to process the claim as fast as possible. Correctly created claims could even be processed by AI again and give an immediate response about the next steps. It would even be possible that AI analyzes the videos and pictures of the damaged car and tells the driver which repair shop is able to fix the problem, how long it will take and what’s covered by the insurance. 

AI and In-Vehicle Infotainment Systems

In-vehicle infotainment systems (IVI) are also known as in-car infotainment systems (ICI) and provide an unique combination of information and entertainment. These systems are the only digital component of a car and are therefore also getting more important. Infotainment systems in modern cars include audio and video content, games, social media, navigation, phone calls and even in-car office features. Despite this range of features, only 56 percent of car owners are currently satisfied with their IVI.

In-car infotainment systems are also a major factor when drivers are purchasing a new car. Modern vehicles have already evolved from hardware-driven machines to software-driven electronic devices. Because of this shift, AI is also becoming more important for ICI.


source: https://media.mercedes-benz.com/article/14bac18d-812f-4418-88ca-4e47b8231b77

Voice and Gesture Recognition

AI-powered personal assistants like Siri and Alexa have already changed the way people are interacting with technology in their homes and on their phones. These voice-controlled assistants are now also shifting the automotive industry. Voice and gesture controlled interfaces allow an easy and intuitive interaction with in-car infotainment systems. With the help of these systems drivers are able to interact with their car, without taking their eyes off the road.

MBUX (Mercedes Benz) is a good example for a voice-controlled in-car personal assistant which can change nearly every setting of the infotainment. The AI behind this system learns the drivers habits and preferences and is even able to improve from time to time. MBUX is also capable of indirect command recognition. That means that it is able to recognize sentences like “Hey Mercedes, I’m cold” and automatically changes the temperature.

Individual Marketing

In-vehicle infotainment systems can also be used for individual marketing. With the help of Artificial Intelligence, drivers and passengers could even get personalized offers or suggestions based on their preferences, needs and habits – displayed directly on the in-car infotainment. Companies could even target potential customers when they are driving by their shops – The possibilities of AI in the automotive industry are endless.

Resources | part 2





VR and AR in Healthcare

Virtual reality and augmented reality have been increasingly used in healthcare for some time now. Especially in the medical field, this technology is increasingly used to simulate surgeries, to train surgeons or to study the anatomy of the human body in more detail.

War scenario Bravemind

Through VR, veterans can relive fictional war scenarios to confront terrible experiences and overcome post-traumatic stress disorder in a safe environment. As part of their therapy, the veteran is asked to confront their experiences and remember what war was like. The goal of these sessions is to make the remembered scenes more alive and accessible, and to work through them with a therapist. By now it is known that most patients have shown an improvement and reduction of their symptoms.

VR scenario: Bravemind

Training for Surgeries 

The surgeon relying entirely on his AR glasses during surgery is still rather unthinkable these days, as technology is involved and failures can occur. However, there are some other ways of using AR glasses that are of great advantage and are already being used in some clinics. By being able to maintain all sterile conditions, they can be used to livestream and record surgeries or communicate with other people outside the operating room. The technology is most likely to be used for teaching and training medical students.

Company: FundamentalVR

VR for people with visual impairments and those who are completely blind

At a conference in 2019, the SeeingVR toolset was introduced. It is intended to enable people who have poor eyesight or are blind to have virtual reality experiences but without having to create extra newly crafted VR experiences. This tool can be overlaid on top of an existing, traditional VR experience as long as the scenario was created using Unity. The tool works in a flexible way to be able to adapt to as many people as possible and to their needs. The user can adjust brightness, zoom in on elements, change contrast or change text color or size. In addition, objects were given brighter edges to highlight them and contours were given to the scene. A laser can be used to point to a text that is then read aloud.

Company: SeeingVR

Embodied Labs to simulate what its like to live with certain health conditions

One company developed labs that use VR simulations to help people experience what it feels like to have certain health conditions. One example of a simulation is Alfred. Alfred is a 74-year-old African-American man who suffers from both high-frequency hearing loss and macular degeneration (a disease of the retina of the eye). Individuals can put on the headset and perceive their surroundings from Alfred’s perspective. Technology is used to increase the volume when a user leans in the direction where the sound is coming from. After a period of time, the user is given a hearing aid to understand what difference the device is making. It is interesting that during tests, even though people read through the introduction, they immediately reported that something has to be broken or that the volume was too low.

Company: Embodied Labs

Children with autism are taught social and communication skills

Floreo is a company that focuses on teaching social and communication skills to autistic children by combining VR with games or other activities and letting them practice certain scenarios. Through this method, children who are often overwhelmed by their real environment can practice and learn to cope in a virtual environment.

Company: Floreo

Detect visual impairments through AR

Using AR glasses and eye tracking, the company SyncThink can determine whether and to what extent visual impairments are present.

Company: SyncThink

Unlearning the sensation of pain

The company Karuna helps people to exercise more to have less pain in their upper body or back. Learned pain or chronic pain is to be unlearned through a 12-week course. Common everyday scenarios or activities must be completed with the help of a VR headset and a tablet with instructions.

Company: KarunaHOME

Improve physical health through VR therapy

Using VR can help people who have psychological problems. An example is fear of heights. Through therapy, a user can be exposed to heights in a protected, simulated environment and learn how to deal with it or try different things. A virtual couch is there to support and help. 

Company: Oxford VR


  1. News Feature: Virtual reality therapy set for a real renaissance, M. Mitchell Waldrop (26.9.2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625944/
  2. Using Google Glass in Surgical Settings: Systematic Review, Nancy J Wie, Bryn Dougherty, Aundria Myers, Sherif M Badawy (6.3.2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861300/
  3. Microsoft Tools Bring VR Access to Low-Vision, Blind Users, Pamela Hogle (10.6.2019), https://learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/microsoft-tools-bring-vr-access-to-low-vision-blind-users?utm_campaign=lspub&utm_medium=link&utm_source=lspub
  4. Can virtual reality change the way we think about health?, Gordon Gottsegen (29.6.2019), https://builtin.com/healthcare-technology/ar-virtual-reality-healthcare
  5. 18 Healthcare Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality Companies to Watch, Kayla Matthews (29.6.2020), https://hitconsultant.net/2020/06/29/augmented-reality-and-virtual-reality-companies-to-watch/#.YBBhVS337ow
  6. Karuna, (2021), https://karunalabs.com
  7. Oxfordvr, (2021), https://ovrhealth.com

„Erfundene“ Tradition? (6)

Hobsbowm und Ranger schreiben in „The Invention of Tradition“ darüber, wie Traditionen passend zur aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Situation erfunden werden.  “That ‘new’ traditions simply resulted from the inability to use or adapt old ones.”[1] Dies passiert, “When a rapid transformation of society weakens or destroys the social pattern for which ‘old’ traditions had been designed” or “when such old traditions and their institutional carriers and promulgators no longer prove sufficiently adaptable and flexible, or are otherwise eliminated: in short, when there are sufficiently large and rapid changes on the demand or the supply side.”[2]

Auf was basiert die Tradition der Sinti und Roma? Wurden ihnen erfundene Traditionen zugeschrieben?

Dr. phil. Ursula Hemetek untersuchte in ihren Forschungen, „die Frage, inwieweit sie selbst und andere ForscherInnen Tradition und Ethnizität der Roma `miterfunden` haben.“[3] Hemetek fokussierte sich dabei vor allem in den Bereich der Musikethnologie. Sie schreibt:

„Wir ForscherInnen haben einen Anteil daran, wie sich Communities musikalisch identifizieren, wir beeinflussen das `Feld` durch unsere Fragen, Aufnahmen und Publikationen und die Frage, ob wir nicht damals gewissermaßen Tradition und Ethnizität der Roma `miterfunden` haben, ist offen. Was ich inzwischen gelernt habe, ist, den individuellen musikalischen Ausdruck als solchen wahrzunehmen und mir nicht kollektive Interpretationen anzumaßen. […] Aber mein Verstehen verbleibt in einem begrenzten Rahmen und ich maße mir nicht mehr an, `die Roma` verstehen zu wollen.“[4]

Das Unwissen der Sinti und Roma wurde ab Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts mit vielen Vorurteilen ausgeglichen und als Bedrohung deklariert. Klaus-Michael Bogdal analysiert die Geschichte der Sinti und Roma und erkennt dabei immer wieder eine Zerrissenheit von Verachtung und Faszination.

Mitte des 19. Jahrhundert lancierte die „Zigeunerromantik“, die unabhängigen, natürlichen und freiheitlichen[5] Zuschreibungen der Sinti und Roma, die im Gegensatz zu der „bürgerlichen Industriegesellschaft“ stand[6]. Die Beschreibungen waren stets ohne „jegliche Referenz zur Lebenswirklichkeit der Romvölker“.[7] In der Literatur um 1800 werden Sinti und Roma als in der Vergangenheit zurückgeblieben[8] dargestellt oder mit „Krisen, Probleme und Tabus“ in Verbindung gebracht. Die Angst vor dem Wahrsagen und Verschwörungen wurde mit den Roma in Verbindung gebracht. [9]

Ende des 19 Jahrhunderts wurden in geisteswissenschaftlicher Forschung „Verbrechens- und Rassentheorien“ aufgestellt, bei denen die europäischen Roma als „`Asoziale` und `Arbeitsscheue`“ deklariert wurden.[10]

„Das Bild des ›Zigeuners‹ ist schillernd, unscharf und ausdeutbar.“[11] Durch diese Unschärfe entsteht ein „gesellschaftliche Konstrukt, dem ein Grundbestand an Wissen, Bildern, Motiven, Handlungsmustern und Legenden zugrunde liegt, durch die ihnen im Reden über sie kollektive Merkmale erst zugeschrieben werden.“[12]

Aber wenn Tradition an die aktuelle Lage angepasst wird, haben wir ja auch in der Hand was mit der Tradition passiert? Dies bedeutet, wir können dabei helfen die Tradition der Sinti und Roma zu einer Tradition gestalten, die von Vorurteilen befreit ist.

[1] Hobsbawm, Ranger: The Invention of Tradition: S.5.

[2] Hobsbawm, Ranger: The Invention of Tradition: S.4.

[3] Beate Eder-Jordan in Roma und Travellers. Identitäten im Wandel; S.62.

[4] Ursula Hemetek in Roma und Travellers. Identitäten im Wandel; S. 189

[5] Vgl. Klaus-Michael Bogdal: Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung; S.14.

[6] Ebd.; S.14.

[7] Ebd.; S.263.

[8] Ebd.; S.231.

[9] Ebd.; S.232.

[10] Vgl. Klaus-Michael Bogdal: Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung; S.15.

[11] Ebd.; S.14.

[12] Klaus-Michael Bogdal: Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung; S.16.

Joyful Design 10

Jeff Koons
An excursion into the art world

Round shapes, colors, nostalgia, beauty in skilled performances—all those terms are indicators for joyful design—and when looking at Jeff Koons art we cannot deny that all those elements synergize in his works of art—making Jeff Koons a perfect example of how to consciously use all those “ingredients” to create joyful experiences.

Jeff Koons finds beauty in the ordinary and overlooked things of our life and is considered the most bankable contemporary artist alive—his stainless steel Rabbit (1986), sold for $91.1 million in 2019, is the most expensive artwork by a living artist to ever be sold at auction. The concept of the readymade—displaying an ordinary object in a new context as a work of art, is the foundation for most of Jeff ’s work. He says the idea that he “could acquire things and let them just display themselves” was a revelation. Knickknacks, comic books, ceramic figurines, and domestic appliances act as a springboard for his imagination. His works are clearly inspired by pop culture, consumer desire, sexual freedom, childhood wonder and self-acceptance. While other artists only stay relevant for a short time, nobody else has stayed so relevant for so long.

His pieces provoke smiles, gasps, cringes, laughs, and, above all else, the individual’s investigation of those reactions. He doesn’t shy away from candy-colored excess. His signature motif, the high-polish surface, reflects our experience of his art back onto us.

“It’s really the quality of his work, interlocking with economic and social trends, that makes him the signal artist of today’s world.”—New Yorker art critic Peter Schjeldahl.

Inflatable Flower and Bunny (Tall White, Pink Bunny), 1979

Nostalgia, Colors, Round Shapes
Inflatable Flower and Bunny was the first piece of art that brought toys and mirrors into Jeff’s artistic vocabulary. He picked the bunny because it reminded Jeff of the Easter decorations in his hometown. Several motifs, namely the cartoon iconography and use of reflective surfaces, are still central to Jeff’s work today.

Three Ball Total Equilibrium Tank, 1985

Skilled Performance, Round Shapes, Nostalgia
“I wanted to keep it a very womb-like situation with water,” Jeff Koons commented in a 1992 Taschen monograph. But this vision proved to be incredibly challenging. To bring his idea to life, Jeff consulted Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel Prize–winning physicist, to devise a method of filling the balls and tank with the correct proportions of distilled water and highly refined salt so the balls would float. Temperature fluctuations and visitors’ footsteps blend the water and sodium, causing the balls to sink; the artwork has built into it an inevitable failure, requiring reinstallation every six months.

“Ideas come from sensations. You don’t have ideas without having sensations.”—Jeff Koons

Play-Doh 1994–2014

Colors, Nostalgia, Skilled Performance
Play-Doh took Jeff Koons 20 years from conception to completion. The piece of art is his memorial to innocent creativity—made up of 27 individual pieces of polychromed aluminum, it re-creates at monumental scale a colorful mound of modeling putty once given to Jeff by his son Ludwig. Play-Doh represents an inflection point of Jeff’s preoccupation with superrealistic, large-scale sculpture.

Balloon Dog (Blue), 1994-2000

Skilled Performance, Round Shapes, Shininess
Balloon Dog started as a simple idea for Jeff: create something that would imbue adults with the delight that children feel at birthday parties. The execution proved more complex. In a feat of modern fabrication, Jeff translated this concept into an 11-foot-tall stainless steel sculpture whose dimensions precisely replicate its reallife latex counterpart.

Like many of Jeff’s high-polished works, these pieces engage the spectator and celebrate the surroundings of their installation with the intent of bringing joy to audiences the world over.

Jeff Koons on Masterclass. URL: https://www.masterclass.com