It is a treatment based on music as therapy, which emphasizes some specific musical elements (such as rhythm, melody, dynamics, tempo) in the construction of the therapy, to treat people with neurological disorders.
It is based on the neuroscientific research of perception and music production. Furthermore, it also examines how the brain responds to music and affects neuroplasticity to help the brain recover from injury in the areas of movement, language and cognition.
Music and rhythm affect multiple areas of the human brain at a subconscious level, this means that rhythm can be used to build connections in the brain, thereby improving its functions. This leads to a more productive and functional life.
There is however a difference between Music Therapy and NMT.
Music Therapy seeks more to treat aspects of patient need such as emotional, physical and mental.
NMT focuses on the physical effect of music and rhythms on the brain and its connections through NMT intervention, which are specific research-based techniques.
Here is an example of an approach to neurological music therapy from the Spaulding rehabilitation network:
Digitalization has not only brought a technical change that has affected almost all areas of life, but also a social and cultural change. Dealing with technology is assumed as a matter of course nowadays, because that’s what modern life consists of. Everything should work as quickly and easily as possible, be intuitive to use, and best of all, everyone can use it themselves without a lot of external tools. But what does intuitive design mean for different industries and at this point in time?
In view of this question and under the aspect of skeuo- and neumorphism, I had a discussion about the music industry in cooperation with a hobby music producer. Indeed, this very industry is characterized by skeuomorphic design elements in digital music production programs, mainly in plugins.
Music production is of course a field that is very hardware related. It therefore made sense to take a skeuomorphic design approach in digital music production programs to represent digitally, often almost 1:1, how it works in analog. The target audience for programs, such as FL Studio, Ableton, Cubase, Logic Pro X, are not amateurs who have not handled an instrument or a mixing console before. Musicians and producers, with a passion for music, composition and analog instrument and mixing console knowledge are the ones who (should) use these programs.
However, this raises a question for me: as has been shown through the research in my previous blog posts, there has of course always been modernization, other design styles, other approaches to design, especially at the level of interaction and intuition. Interfaces that we use every day are constantly changing and trying to adapt more and more to the needs of their target audience. However, I could hardly observe this very change in digital music production programs, especially in plugins. These interfaces adapted to the new technical requirements, but many of them remained almost unchanged in their operation and the design elements used.
A knob still looks like a knob, a slider like a slider and a deployable instrument can be operated just like in real life only via digital inputs or buttons. Cables provide the right connections and show how the digital elements would be connected to each other in an analog way. Why is that?
For me, as a layman in this field, it is not really intuitive to use, as I partly feel I have to learn the instrument or mixing console first, to be able to use the interface. Not only through the instruments, but also the design elements that are based on the mixing console, I can not comprehend without a minimum knowledge in this industry or by trying out a lot. In the interview with the hobby music producer we came to talk exactly about this and in some areas he simply could not imagine any other design solution than the one just used, because it is intuitive for musicians and producers, which as a layman can not be understood at first sight. For example, there are still ten elements next to each other, as it is on a real mixing console, rather than making it a flat dropdown menu to select individual wanted elements.
Intuitive does not mean the same thing for all industries and depends on existing prior knowledge. Other types of intuition also require a different type of interface. However, I think it also has a lot to do with Never change a running system, which indicates the little change in the music production programs and their plugins.
There are some changes going on and there are some other approaches, which I will talk about in my next blog entry. I am not interested in showing or telling what is better or more intuitive, because that is subjective. I want to explore how things are and have changed, how they could be different and how other approaches affect people in the music business, but also laymans.
An important factor to create joyful experiences is empathy. Speaking of empathy in design we have to consider that there are people (as well as brands) with different archetypes to consider. Those archetypes have very different personalities and priorities. Knowing about their mindset is the key to tailored and hence empathic design which acts as a base for joyful design.
In Branding the wheel of twelve archetypes by Carl Jung is a popular tool to explore and figure out where a brand is positioned—which also helps to find a brands voice. Carl Jung developed this concept because of his conviction that archetypes are universal, archaic patterns and image that derive from our collective unconscious. He interpreted them as our psychic counterpart of instinct, which manifests in behavior on interaction with the physical world. Therefore those archetypes not only can be connected with brands but with characteristics of people in general.
People as well as brands can be classified to one specific archetype but they can also identify with a mixture of archetypes. (such as Apple) However, classifying a brand helps to shape its character and therefore enables the audience to identify with the brand and elicit the emotional response creating a sense of belonging—competing on a more instinctive, deeper level.
Those archetypes clearly show that we not only have to consider (universal) aesthetics only to create joyful experiences, but that the emotional layer which corresponds to the feeling of belonging, identification and self-actualization is an important factor to consider too. Plus, with the help and consideration of those archetypes a personal connection to the consumer can be easier established, which in turn sets the base for creating joyful experiences as well as satisfying consumers expectations of a brand.
The twelve archetypes
The Creator brand is visionary, non-conformist and authentic. Those brands want to craft something meaningful and special—they love new ideas and to make them happen and are driven by their desire do produce and create—they are afraid of everything mediocre. Most marketing, design and technology brands are creator brands.
Goal: To realise a vision Strategy: To Develop artistic control and skill Greatest Fear: Mediocre vision or execution Personalities: Artisan, Innovator, Inventor Key Attributes: Innovative, Imaginative, Creative, Artistic, Experimental, Willing to take risks, Ambitious, Desire to turn ideas into Reality, Inventor, Musician, Writer, or Dreamer.
Successful brands will develop a very loyal fan base, for example, Apple and have great chances to become so called “love brands”.
Creator brands promise Authenticity.
“Creator brands often position themselves as the key to unlocking a creator’s creativity. Their main focus is self-expression. The worst thing that could happen to a Creator archetype would be to be seen as inauthentic or a ‘sell-out’.”—Vision One market research
Examples: Apple, Adobe, Lego, Nintendo
The Jester The Joker, The Fun, The Comedian
Jesters live in the moment and fear boredom. They life on the wild site and often use outrageous imagery. They are high on energy, vibrant colors, are playful and entertaining.
Goal: To enjoy the journey and to stand out Strategy: To live in the moment and not be too serious Greatest Fear: To come across boring Personalities: Comedian, Practical Joker, The Fool Key Attributes: Joker, Playful, Carefree, Joyful, Original, Teaser and Foolish
Examples: M&Ms, Doritos, Skittles
The Sage The Teacher, The Investigator, The Mentor
Sage brands strive for truth and want to find the good and the wisdom in all situations. They will promise learning, teaching, knowledge and an open mind. They find fulfillment in finding answers to the most challenging questions and therefore demonstrate intelligence, knowledge and keen problem-solving skills. Charateristics: positivity, wisdom, truth, knowledge, provides intelligence, solutions.
Goal: To use intelligence and wisdom to understand the world Strategy: Seek out information and knowledge Greatest Fear: Being misled or ignored Personalities: Expert/Guru, Investigator, Mentor Key Attributes: Expert, Thinker, Philosopher, Reflective, Advisor, Teacher, Confident, In-control, Wisdom, Intelligence, Planner
Examples: Google, TED, BBC
The Innocent The Honest, The Optimistic, The Pure
Innocent brand have the desire to be free and happy and to keep things simple—they communicate a positive worldview. Because of the optimistic character they are often successful because of moving through barriers, that would stop others. Another characteristic is that those brands aim to motivate others. Brand in health, cleanliness and natural products work with this archetype.
Goal: To be happy Strategy: To do things right Greatest Fear: To come across unhappiness Characteristics: Wholesome, Pure, Forgiving, Trusting, Honest,Happy, Optimistic, Simple.
Innocent brands will promise Simplicity.
“They will offer a somewhat simple solution to any problem associated with goodness, morality, simplicity, nostalgia, and childhood. Innocent brands will strive to do what is right and positive. Most of the time, their simplistic view of the world can be perceived as a weakness. They fear to do something immoral and to see the world being influenced by something negative or unnatural.”—Vision One market research
Examples: Dove, Ford, Coca Cola, Disney
“Dove aims to make women feel confident by using beauty products. Their recent #ShowUs campaign celebrates women in media and advertising. The result is a gallery of women who shatter stereotypes and redefine the meaning of beauty.”—Faith Lisondra 
The Lover The Idealist, The Sensualist, The Seducer
Lover brands are all about creating relationships and creating emotions. They want to make people feel special to celebrate the physical joys of being human, fostering intimacy and bliss. Those brands are aesthetically pleasing are passionate and represent anything that pleasures the senses.
Goal: To be in a relationship with the people, work and surroundings. Strategy: To become more and more physically and emotionally attractive Key Attributes: Seek true love, intimacy, Sensuality, Passionate, Sexy, Seductive, Erotic, Seek Pleasure, To Indulge, Follow Emotions. Greatest Fear: Being alone or feeling unwanted Personalities: Harmoniser, Connector, Partner
“The Lover Archetype are customers who value the aesthetic appearance of goods and services. They are likely to be drawn to premium brands that will make them seem more attractive to others.”—Vision One market research
Lover brands will promise Passion
Examples: Lindt, Chanel, Victoria’s Secret
Perfume and Cosmetic Brands core desires are evoking emotions through their cosmetic products and fragrances—as example Chanels branding itself focuses glamour and experiencing the best things in life and therefore representing a Lover brand archetype perfectly.
Through the combination of perfect storytelling and the power of scent—since smell is one of our senses which is deeply connected with emotions, memories and imagination—perfume brands can be considered to be the most powerful brands evoking feelings of joy.
The Hero The Warrior, Champion Or Superhero
Hero brands are successful brands at producing consistent results. They are competent and courageous—they are winner and achievers that get things done effectively, in their mission to improve the world and foremost to leave a mark on the world.
Goal: Expert mastery in a way that improves the world Strategy: To be as strong and competent as possible Greatest Fear: Vulnerability and weakness Personalities: Competitor, Achiever, Coach
“Hero customers value the quality and trust in their products. They like to think that their consumer choices will put them ahead of everyone else, making them less likely to be drawn in by funny or cute adverts.”—Vision One market research
Examples: BMW, Amazon, Adidas
The Rebel The Revolutionary, The Powerful, The Liberated
Many Rebel brands are seen as revolutionary. They bring fresh perspectives, new outlooks and inspirational changes—they are anything but mainstream and make an efforts to stand out. Successful Rebel brands have a cult like following of people attracted by their energy.
Goal: To overturn what isn’t working Strategy: Disrupt, Destroy or Shock Greatest Fear: To be powerless Personalities: The Troubleshooter, Game Changer, The Challenger
The Rebel brand archetype really reflects those who were born to be wild. Rebel customers appreciate the unconventional and forcefully reject the status quo. They are likely to value shocking content or advertisements that are unique with no obvious ‘selling point’.
“The worst thing that could happen to the rebel brand would be to be bought out or for the brand to become too popular. If something isn’t working, the Rebel will destroy it. If they want revenge, they will take it. If they want to start a revolution, they will just do it. […] They won’t stick to industry conventions, they introduce a new attitude and let their customers know that it’s acceptable not to be a sheep in society.”—Vision One market research
Rebel brands will promise Revolution
Examples: Vans, Harley Davidson, Snickers, Jack Daniel’s
The Regular The Realist, The Everyman, The Friend
Regular brands are empathic, humble and put honesty first. Many people feel a belonging towards those brands.
Goal: To belong Strategy: Be down-to-earth and develop solid virtues Greatest Fear: To be left out or stand out from the crowd Personalities: Realist, Democrat, Comrade
“The most effective products or services that a brand can channel the Regular guy archetype are those that give people a sense of belonging with a high degree of practicality, functionality, and low to mid-degree of complexity. The Regular Guy archetype helps customers be OK just as they are.”—Vision One market research
Examples: VW, GAP, Levis
The Magician The Healer, The Wizard, The Visionary
Magician Brands have a deep impact on the customer and give imagination a reason to go wild. They tend to think out of the box and unexpected. They promise transformative experiences and focus on individuals and motivates people to trust their instincts.
Goal: To make dreams come true Strategy: Develop a vision and live by it Greatest Fear: Negative consequences Personalities: The Envisioner, Healer, Catalyst
“Audi have promoted themselves through this commercial as the magician brand archetype by firstly, the choice of the soundtrack ‘Pure Imagination’ By Willy Wonka, a magical film of mystique and enchantment. The advertisement takes you through the technological processes of building the new A5, but with the idea that it has been created and innovated along the lines of your imagination and therefore magical, making dreams come true.”—Vision One market research
The Explorer The Explorer, Trailblazer, Pioneer or Adventurer
Explorer brands are restless, independent and self-motivated—they define freedom and are ambitious. Most of us love to travel and discover new things and people. When a brand does that as a person, people love to look forward to what they bring next. Explorer brands create products that promote individuality, excitement, and a way to experience new things.
Goal: To experience a more authentic and fulfilling life Strategy: To journey, seek and experience new things Greatest Fear: To be trapped and conform Personalities: Individualist, seeker, Trailblazer
“The Explorer aims to make people feel free and nonconformist and also helps people express their individuality. Explorer brands are innovative and ambitious. They seek out the new, pushing boundaries and delighting in unexpected discoveries, whilst embracing a “no limit” philosophy.”—Vision One market research
The Explorer brand archetype promise Freedom.
Examples: RedBull, Northface, Jeep, GoPro
“As soon as you press play on this advertisement by GOpro, you can already sense through the soundtrack that it is all about discovery and freedom. GOpro brand themselves through nature, outdoor hobbies and exploration and they advertise their products to be an essential of this world in the most extreme environments. They aim to inspire travel in people, to go and find themselves and of course to capture every moment with their products.”—Vision One market research
The Ruler The Leader, The Powerful, The Role Model
Ruler brands are leaders in their field—they show authority, create order out of the mess and care a legacy.
Goal: To create a prosperous, successful community Strategy: To exercise power Greatest Fear: Chaos and being overthrown Personalities: Peacemaker, Powerbroker, Conductor
Key Attributes: Manager, Organiser, Productive, Confidence, Responsible, Role Model, The boss, The leader.
Examples: Starbucks, Rolex, Apple
The Caregiver The Caregiver, Nurturer, Parent, Angel
Caregiver Brands are driven by their need to protect and care for others. Their values are empathy, protection, safety and support.
Goal: To help and care for others Strategy: Protecting and doing things for others Greatest Fear: Selfishness and Ingratitude Personalities: Supporter, Advocate, Nurturer
Key Attributes: Altruistic, Selfless, Nurturing, Compassionate, Empathetic, Supportive and Generous
Examples: Innocent, Nivea
 Medium. 12 Brand Archetypes You Can Use to Effectively Position Your Brand. URL: https://medium.com/better-marketing/12-brand-archetypes-you-can-use-to-effectively-position-your-brand-75e0bce0adc6
We still don’t know 100% what effects, specific to VR for example, can have on our health or on our brain in the long term. An MRI of the brain while using it cannot be done with VR because the head has to be kept still and that turns out to be a bit more difficult in this case. Using VR has many good aspects such as overcoming trauma, can bring out a realistic level of empathy, reduce pain or even cure phobias. However, stimulus overload can also, in the worst case scenario, lead to creating a new trauma. The warnings, requests for breaks, age limits, or the need to sign documents before using VR cannot be ignored or accepted as careless under any circumstances. This is precisely why it is important to consider in advance what technology to use for what purpose and whether a positive goal can be achieved with it.
In the process of my research, I was mainly interested in headsets, glasses or other things that are relatively easy to put on, as safe as possible to use and perhaps don’t completely exclude your own real environment or at least are easy to take off. Which technology, headset or glasses will end up being the best fit for my project will become clear over time. So here is a small selection of technologies that are interesting for me at the moment:
The Mixed-Reality-Headset Microsoft Hololens 2
This headset is put on and tightened with the help of a knob and a headband
The headset does not need to be taken off because the visor can be folded upwards
Display does not have to be precisely aligned with the eyes to work due to the technology used (laser, mirror, waveguides) in the glasses
Not yet immersive enough for the normal consumer
The first standalone mixed reality glasses Lynx-R1
Does not require external tracking sensors or other devices
Optical hand tracking
Digital elements can be added to a real-time filmed environment by two cameras on the display
VR and AR at the same time
Multiple cameras are used to film the environment
Small VR glasses from Panasonic
Ordinary, commercially available VR glasses are much bigger and bulkier
Stereo speakers are integrated
Is put on like a normal pair of glasses
Positional tracking through inside-out tracking cameras by tracking the position of the head mounted display and that of the controller
AR glasses Rokid Vision 2
Must be connected with a cable to smartphone, laptop or tablet
Is put on like a normal pair of glasses
Has Speakers for stereo sound
The glasses will be operated by voice control
There are specially developed scenarios, such as a Fantasy World. This is an immersive space in which the user can interact with the world through head-, gesture- or voice control
The user can move freely in the virtual space through room tracking
No word yet on when it will hit the market
VR Arcade Game from The VOID or Sandbox VR
The VOID and Sandbox VR are actually both on the verge of going out of business. Due to the Corona crisis, all arcades had to close, and at the VOID, Disney withdrew several important licenses, such as Star Wars, because the company could not pay for them due to expensive equipment and associated debts. Still, the concept behind it is very exciting. Here are a few key points from The VOID:
Through a headset, motion capture cameras, 3D precision body tracking, haptic suits, props like flashlights or blasters meant to represent a weapon, one can explore the game in the physical environment and interact with a virtual world simultaneously
Fully immersive through VR and at the same time physical in the game by making virtual objects resemble physical objects
So you are immersed in the game as the main character, and depending on the virtual world and story, you have to complete certain tasks as a team
Microsoft’s Hololens 2: A $3,500 Mixed Reality Headset for the factory, not the living room, Dieter Bohn (24.2.2019), https://www.theverge.com/2019/2/24/18235460/microsoft-hololens-2-price-specs-mixed-reality-ar-vr-business-work-features-mwc-2019
Lynx-R1: Erste autarke Mixed-Reality-Brille vorgestellt, Tomislav Bezmalinovic (4.2.2020), https://mixed.de/lynx-r1-erste-autarke-mixed-reality-brille-vorgestellt/
CES 2021: Panasonic zeigt extra-schlanke VR-Brille, Tomislav Bezmalinovic (12.1.2021), https://mixed.de/ces-2021-panasonic-zeigt-extra-schlanke-vr-brille/
Rokid Vision 2: AR-Brille kommt in neuem Design, Tomislav Bezmalinovic (15.1.2021), https://mixed.de/rokid-vision-2-ar-brille-kommt-in-neuem-design/
The VOID (2021), http://www.thevoid.com/what-is-the-void/
The Void: Highend-VR-Arcade steht vor dem Aus, Tomislav Bezmalinovic (17.11.2020), https://mixed.de/the-void-highend-vr-arcade-steht-vor-dem-aus/
Die haptische Wahrnehmung ist ziemlich ähnlich zur auditiven Wahrnehmung. Haptisches Feedback sind Frequenzen die über die Haut wahrgenommen werden. Die menschliche Haut reagiert auf Frequenzen zwischen 0.4 und 1000 Hz. Im Frequenzbereich zwischen 300 und 400 Hz reagiert unsere Haut besonders empfindlich.
» At a location with high sensitivity a vibration can be of lower intensity to get the same perception of intensity. «
Rovers, A.F., van Essen, H.A., n.d. Using Active Haptic Feedback in Everyday Products.
In dieser Grafik werden die empfindlichsten Körperregionen dargestellt-
Nowadays the movies are full of animations, never mind if it’s a kids movie or a sci-fi blockbuster.
In the fully animated movie Monsters, Inc., released in 2001, all the figures, landscapes and effects were digitally created on the computer. The success of the movie came not only because of the funny story, but was also due to the incredibly high details the characters and the whole “set” showed. The monster Sullivan, for example, was rendered with a fur containing 2.3 million hairs!
Now, twenty years later, the possibilities to trick the audiences of course have increased. For movie studios it’s easy to put real actors into completely animated sceneries. Due to the increase in computing power everybody who’s capable of using a smartphone can easily morph their self portraits into younger or older versions of themselves. With some experience you should even be able to produce deepfake videos – a technique where mostly (famous) peoples’ faces are mapped onto faces in real videos or images. Taking the fact that these deepfakes, generated with help of machine learning and artificial intelligence, seem extremely realistic, the method of deepfake should be handled with care even though really funny things are possible.
Besides highly detailed digital effects, 3D-animations and renderings connecting reality and imagination on a level never reached before, all the movies we watch still make use of pretty easy tricks. Simple cuts and montage do not only create concise coherence but also create specific atmospheres and evoke emotions in the audience.
These methods are nothing new and neither connected to digital processes nor analog techniques – actually they have been used since the very early beginnings of film and movies in the early 20th century.
One of the pioneers of film was Georges Méliès, a French magician and manager-director of the Théâtre Robert-Houdin. Inspired by the Lumiere brothers’ performance of early motion pictures showing real life scenes, Méliès started to film scenes and experimented with the matter, which lead him to develop camera techniques such as stop-motion, slow-motion, superimposition or double exposure.
In a glass studio he built in the surroundings of Paris, Georges Méliès started to create theatrical sceneries, which in combination with film and camera made fictional narratives possible, like his most famous film Le Voyage dans la Lune from 1902. This movie showed the story of a handful of astronomers taking an adventurous journey to the moon via a cannon capsule and returning back to earth and thus can be seen as the first science fiction movie.
However as movies became more and more popular, big commercial film studios entered the market and forced Méliès out of business. In 1923 Georges Méliès burnt his entire life’s work with over 500 films, featuring partially hand colored movies, combining magic tricks, theatrical stage props and a variety of fantastic stories.
Luckily some (master) copies of his films survived around the globe and the genius of Méliès was rediscovered and the importance of his work was acknowledged by critics in the 1930s.
Almost one century after its first release, a colored copy of Méliès’ master piece was restored by Lobster Films. Between 1999 and 2010, up to date digital tools were used to carefully refurbish each of the 13,375 frames of the film, for which missing frames – lost or too damaged – have been taken from the black and white version and colored afterwards.
Taking into account that this movie reel was lost for decades, the digitally restored version partially resembles a hi-resolution short film, using numerous effects to make it look like it’s 100 years old.
Eventually Méliès’ Le Voyage Dans La Lune is a great example for what effects and analog techniques have been used from the beginning of film til nowadays as well as the resilience of analog media. Additionally the carefully restored version shows the possibilties of digital editing and it’s depth and accuracy.
Why storytelling is more trustworthy than presenting data Karen Eber | TEDxPurdueU
For Karen Eber telling stories is helping people feel seen and a great way to connect with people. Eber starts off her talk by explaining the neurological process when listening to a story or data and how through listening to stories you gain empathy for the storyteller. She clarifies that data doesn’t change behavior, emotions do and that data never speaks for itself. It needs context.
According to Eber a great story answers three questions: What is the context? What is the conflict? What is the outcome? It also builds and releases tension, creates an idea and helps you see new things as well as communicates value. To connect your story and data you want to share you have to come up with the framework for your data and story first. By retelling stories and talking about her own experience in consulting others Eber makes you think about presenting data in a whole new way.
Don’t wait for the perfect story. Take your stories and make it perfect.
As we saw in the previous articles, one of the role of science centers is to introduce participatory experiences and provide effective learning content and techniques. While traditional museum emphasize static displays of objects and artifacts, science centers have followed the more dynamic philosophy of the chinese proverb : « I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand » . Since learning is a complex concept, we will try here to explain it as well as the strategies used by science centers to adress this goal.
Learning is a dynamic process in which the learner uses sensory inputs and constructs meaning out of it.It is what people do when they want to make sense of the world around them. It may involve enhancing in skills, knowledge, understanding, values, feelings, attitudes and capactity to reflect. Effective learning leads to change, development and the desire to learn more.
People be trained to learn to learn as they learn to see as learning consists both of constructing meaning and constructing systems of meaning. The crucial action of construction meaning is mental where it happens in the mind. Physical actions such as hands on experience may be necessay for learning that effectively for children. However it is not sufficient while we need to provide activities which engage the mind as well as the hands.
Learning is a social activity that out learning is intimately associated with our connection with other human beings, our teachers, our peers, our familiy as well as casual acquaintances, including the people before us or next to us at the exhibit. Learning is contextual as we do not learn isolated facts and theories in some abstract ehtereal land of the mind separate from the rest of our lives, we learn in relation to what else we know, what we believe, our prejudice and our fears .
Learning is divided into 3 categories :
Formal learning : school experience, teacher or staff might involve worksheets, often passive and may involve assessment
Selft directed learning : led by the learner when they are interested in a subject or motivated by a specific need (school project, vocational interest)
Informal learning : unplanned casual encounters that lead to new insights, ideas or conversation. Types of learning that always introduced in a museum setting are related to how well visitors understand and regulate their own thinking process as summarized by the following description.
Learning takes time : the 4 stages of the learning model :
Stage 1 : Self Awareness – Don’t know that you don’t know
This is the first stage of learning. The individual doesn’t understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. The lenght of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimilus to learn. You don’t know where you are and what you are doing.
Stage 2 : Self Appreciation – Know that you don’t know
The learner doesn’t understand or know how to do something but he recognizes the deficit. This is the most difficult stage and it is where the learning begins. A lot of mistakes are going to be made during this learning process.
Stage 3 : Self Engagement – Know about it, but you have to think about it
The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledges requires concentration and effort. This stage is easer than the previous one but still requires concentration.
Stage 4 : Selft directed learning – Know it so well you don’t have to think about it
The individual had a lot of practice with a skill that has become a second nature and can be performed easily. He may be able to teach to other people depending on how and when it was learned.
The model of the exploratorium for learning
Science and children museum’s followed the learning strategy model of the Exploratorim because it put the visitor in a very active role as a learner : Experimenting, Hypothsizing, Interpreting and drawing conclusions. This model integrate 4 importants aspect of the learning environment : immediate apprehendability, physical interactivity, conceptual coherence and diversity of learning modes .
immediate apprehendability : capacity to create effortless backdrops. The aim is to limit the cognitive overload also named as the museum fatigue. Shettle found that the average visitor views an exhibit unit for 20 seconds and tours a complete exhibit for a maximum of 14 minutes. It means that science centers are able to draw the attention of the viewer for a very limited period of time. In order to capitalize on that time it is important not to require the reading of extensive text nor concentration on visual aids that would try the patience of the average viewer. This concept is close to the idea of affordance defined by Donald Norman.
physical interactivity : Research on visitor learning in museums suggests that interactivity promotes engagement, understanding and recall of exhibits. Some studies in the exploratorium identified 5 common pitifalls for designing exhibits with high levels of interactivity or multiple interactive features : multiple options with equal salience can overwhelm visitors, interactivity by multiple simultaneous users can lead to disruption, interactivity can desrupt the comprehension of the phenomen.
conceptual coherence : one of the main goal of science centers is to give visitors the big picture around a subject. They are using various techniques to make abstract concepts and themes more apparent to visitors. Achieving high levels of thematic clarity for exhibitions may be particularly difficult in an open environment.
diversity of learning modes
Howard gardner developed a theory on the dissimilar ways that individuals learn and process information, which called the multiple intelligences theory. According to gardner’s theory, visitors might show well built leaning skills in any of seven different style categories that summarized in the following tables :
Through this different categorisations of learning profiles, Dawson tried to show how museum communication of meaning would affect those different types of learners :
The concepts of visitors involvement and participatory exhibit have undergone some basic changes in recent years as a result of museum research on viewer attention span and of nonmuseum research on cognitive and affective processes. Participatory exhibits actively involve the visitor in discovering information through his own participation in the demonstration process. Successful participatory learning devices are those that allow manipulation, experimentation and variation. For an instructionally efficient and effective exhibit, some feedback loop between the person and object appears to be necessary .
In the video underneath, Nina Simon is explaining a few rules and BPE of a good visitor engagement. She also explains why affordance is particularly important when designing an exhibition.
The role of museums in lifelong learning
Lifelong learning is the ability to constantly update and expand your knowledge in a variety of fields. It helps you to survive, to engage and shape your vision of the world. Lifelong learning comprises all phases of learning from preschool to post retirement. Museums take place in this learning, and propose content for all age groups.
Literacy is a person who has all the abilities to be able to engage deeply herself with a specific topic. For this, she needs 3 components :
knowledge : about the specific topic
skills : direct to the tasks or to apply the knowlege
volition : will to engage and do something
Scientific literacy : a person who has the will to engage in a recent discourse about science and technology which requires the competences to explain phenomena scientifically (knowledge), evaluate and design scientific enquiries (skills) and interpret data and evidences scientifically (skills and knowledge).
A visitor who really uses a museum content to its full extend, is called a museum literate person.
The 8 dimensions of museum literacy :
curiosity, motivation and volition = the interest to will to do something inside the museum
information processung competence = skills to use the information which is presented
social competence = being able to interact either with the staff at the museum or with other visitors
emotional competencies = self regulation on the other hand to allo feelings during a museum exhibit
pre knowledge of a subject
visual literacy = the ability to interepet the signs and images
location and behavior competence : the ability to orient oneself in a museum and manoeuver through the differe offers of a museum
appreciation of the exhibit = valuation of the objects of our cultural heritage
Application of thoses principles through the Dargis museum of Munich.
The museum is in position to make a decision about which techniques and approaches are been utilized with respect to specific communication goals. In order to learn, a visitor first has to be motivated which is usually the case since visitors are chosing to go on science centers. Then, exhibitions designer must pay attention to provide immediate apprehendability, physical interactivity, conceptual coherence and to adress the multiple learning modes availables through the use of different communication devices. It is always useful to evaluate afterwards the vision of visitors after an exhibition in terms of learning and enjoyment, to evaluate if the global design exhibition experience is successful or not.
 Kimche, L. (1978). Science centers: a potential for learning. Science 199, 270–273.
 Ahmad, S., Abbas, M.Y., Taib, Mohd.Z.Mohd., and Masri, M. (2014). Museum Exhibition Design: Communication of Meaning and the Shaping of Knowledge. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 153, 254–265.
 Allen, S. (2004). Designs for learning: Studying science museum exhibits that do more than entertain. Sci. Ed. 88, S17–S33.
Kurz erklärt: Bei den Instagram Stories geht es um kurzen visuellen Content in Form von Bildern oder Videos. 24 Stunden nach ihrer Veröffentlichung verschwinden sie und sind für die Nutzer der Plattform – außer dem Ersteller – nicht mehr einsehbar. Nach Ablauf der Story, wird diese in ein, nur für den Account-Inhaber einsehbares, Archiv gespeichert. Von dort aus kann er alle entstandenen Posts immer wieder ansehen.
Es gibt jedoch die Möglichkeit Stories in sogenannte Highlights zu speichern. Diese Highlights können sich andere User zu jeder Zeit am Profil des Erstellers ansehen. So werden Stories auf für andere User länger sichtbar gemacht.
Vorrangig bekommt man die Instagram Stories von Usern, mit denen man am meisten interagiert, gezeigt. Vor allem hier legt Instagram darauf Wert, den Usern das Aktuellste vorzuschlagen, um die User up-to-date mit ihren beliebtesten Accounts zu halten.
Wenn man regelmäßig mit einem Account interagiert, werden vor allem deren Stories angezeigt. Auch wenn man die aktuellsten Stories bereits angesehen hat, kann es passieren, dass Instagram trotzdem deren Account vorschlägt.
Deshalb ist es wichtig Stories zu posten, da sie deinen Einfluss auf deine Nutzer erheblich steigern können und du ihnen öfter gezeigt wirst. Dadurch hast du eine höhere Chance, dass andere Nutzer auf dein Profil zugreifen, womit du auch im Algorithmus besser gewertet wirst.
Auf der Explore Page bekommt der User Inhalte vorgeschlagen, von denen Instagram ausgeht, dass sie seine aktuellen Interessen widerspiegeln. Die meisten dieser Beiträge sind von Profilen, denen der User noch nicht folgt – anders als im Instagram Feed, der Beiträge der Accounts zeigt, denen man folgt. Damit will Instagram Interaktionen fördern und auslösen.
Um mit seinen eigenen Posts auf die Explore Page zu gelangen, muss man vor allem Themen treffen, die gerade bei Usern im Trend sind. Am besten dazu sind starke Captions (Bildunterschrift) und gut gewählte Hashtags. Hashtags dienen vor allem dazu die Posts zu kategorisieren. So kann Instagram sie leichter gewissen Themen zuordnen.
Erhalten die eigenen Posts dann viel Engagement, ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass man auf die Explore Page kommt gar nicht mehr so gering.
IGTV (Instagram TV) & Reels
Bei diesen zwei Formaten handelt es sich um Videos, die den Usern gezeigt werden. Während Reels kurze Videos sind, die sich auch mit TikTok Videos vergleichen lassen, so sind die Videos, die auf IGTV gepostet werden, lange.
Beide Formate können ebenfalls auf der Explore Page vorgeschlagen werden und können durch ihr bewegtes Format die User meistens zu längerer Betrachtung bringen.
Die IGTV Videos sind grundsätzlich auf dem Profil des Users einsehbar. Allerdings kann man hier eine ein-minütige Vorschau erstellen, die auch im Feed gepostet werden kann. So werden mehrere User auf das Video aufmerksam und man kann es so etwas mehr pushen. IGTV Videos können, wie oben bereits erwähnt, länger ausfallen. Zum Beispiel können Live Videos später als IGTV Video gespeichert werden und sind so – wie Highlights – auch nach der Live-Übertragung noch für andere User einsehbar.
Man kann auf Instagram auch Live gehen. Das passiert über die Instagram Story. Hier können die Zuseher kommentieren und Fragen stellen, die dann im Video live beantwortet werden können.
Reels kann man gleich direkt in seinem Instagram Feed posten, da sie sehr kurz sind. Durch das Klicken auf ein Reels, öffnet man eine Reel-Vorschau, in der man – wie bei TikTok – endlos hinunter scrollen kann.
Die Nutzung von Instagram ist in den letzten Jahren für Firmen und andere Werbende sehr essentiell und wichtig geworden. Wer sein Produkt heute nicht aktiv auf der Plattform präsentiert wird vor allem von den 18 – 34-jährigen wenig Aufmerksamkeit bekommen. Auch gesponserte Werbung, für die man auf Instagram bezahlt, kommt immer häufiger vor. Diese Umstände, die neuen Usergruppen auf Instagram und das dadurch entstehende und immer mehr werdende Konkurrenzverhalten sind unter anderem Gründe für die geänderten Algorithmen der Plattform.
Vor einigen Jahren hat Instagram seine Schlüsselfaktoren geteilt, auf die der damalige Algorithmus angesprochen hat. Diese waren Interesse, Beziehungen, Zeitpunkt/Pünktlichkeit, Häufigkeit, Abonnieren und Verwendung(interest, relationship, timeliness, frequency, following and usage).
Heute sind die wichtigsten drei Punkte, auf die man sich konzentrieren sollte Beziehungen, Interesse und Zeitpunkte, an denen man Inhalte teilt.
Vor allem bei ‚Beziehungen‘ geht es um Interaktionen, genauer gesagt, wiederholte Interaktionen zwischen bestimmten Profilen. Instagram befürwortet den regelmäßigen Austausch zwischen Usern. Hier kann man entweder direkt mit dem User interagieren – liken, kommentieren, erwähnen – oder seine Inhalte teilen.
Bei ‚Interesse‘ geht es vor allem um Engagement. Je mehr Kommentare man bekommt, je öfter ein Beitrag geteilt wird, ob ein Beitrag gespeichert wird und natürlich auch wie oft er ein Like bekommt, beeinflusst den Algorithmus, sodass er den Post mehreren Usern auf der Plattform zeigt. Der Algorithmus funktioniert auch umgekehrt. D.h. je öfter ich mit einem Profil interagiere, desto eher werden mir auch diese Beiträge und Stories vorgeschlagen bzw. ähnliche Beiträge von anderen Usern gezeigt.
Hier kann man sehr ins Detail gehen. Zum Beispiel beeinflusst man den Algorithmus positiv, indem man auf Kommentare unter dem eigenen Post antwortet. Hier werden kurze Wörter oder Emojis allerdings nicht oder wenig gewertet. Möchte man also dadurch sein Profil pushen, so sollte man mit mehreren Wörtern – mindestens vier – antworten.
Die wichtigsten Interaktionen auf der Plattform: liken, kommentieren, teilen, wie oft ein Video angesehen wird.
Etwas das nicht aufgelistet wurde ist ‚Beiträge speichern‘. Ein relativ neues Feature, das in der Zukunft mehr Bedeutung bekommen könnte.
Wenn man von den richtigen‚Zeitpunkten‘ auf Instagram redet, geht es vor allem auch um die Häufigkeit. Regelmäßiges Posten ist essentiell, um auf Instagram effizient Follower zu gewinnen. Jedoch nicht nur das. Man muss auch wissen, wann seine Zielgruppe auf der Plattform unterwegs ist, damit die Chancen, dass sie deinen Post sehen, größer sind.
Übrigens passt Instagram die gezeigten Posts hier an die User an.
Sind deine Follower häufig und lange auf der Plattform unterwegs, werden ihnen ältere Beiträge gezeigt. Ihnen werden die besten Beiträge, die seit dem letzten Verwenden der App entstanden sind, gezeigt.
Verwenden sie Instagram immer nur für kurze Zeit, dann sehen sie die neuesten Beiträge. Hier wird nicht chronologisch vorgegangen, da Instagram versucht herauszufinden, was diese User anspricht.
Interaktionsvarianten auf Instagram
Like Zeigen, dass einem der Beitrag gefällt
Kommentar Interagieren, indem man ein Kommentar hinterlässt oder auf Kommentare anderer User antwortet
Teilen innerhalb der Plattform
Erwähnen & verlinken
Privat teilen (Direct messaging) Mit bestimmten Usern innerhalb der Plattform teilen
Teilen außerhalb der Plattform
Über andere Plattformen (Facebook, etc.)
Speichern Beiträge privat speichern, um sie später nochmals ansehen zu können
Dauer der Betrachtung Wie lange und wie oft sieht man sich ein Bild, Video oder eine Story an.