User Research, the propper kind of meditation

Vipassana Meditation

Vipassana was taught in India more than 2500 years ago as a universal remedy for universal ills, i.e., an Art of Living.

In Pali, an ancient language of Buddhism, the word “Vipassana” means “seeing things as they really are.” The literal translation is “special seeing.”

Often, the term “Vipassana meditation” is used interchangeably with “mindfulness meditation,” but Vipassana is more specific. It involves observing your thoughts and emotions as they are, without judging or dwelling on them.

Vipassana, you simply observe your inner self instead of consciously controlling the experience. The goal is to help you:

  • Quiet your mind
  • Focus on the present
  • Accept thoughts, emotions, and sensations for what they really are
  • Reduce regrets by dwelling less on the past
  • Worry less about the future
  • Respond to situations based on reality, instead of worries or preconceived notions

Why it is better for a beginner?

Vipassana is a kind of meditation that doesn’t need much preparation to be done and it is a good starting point for a beginner because it is really easy to follow and to achieve.

That means that the guide for this kind of meditation can be optional. An app will be useful for the timer, sounds and in case of guide a guide. You can follow these steps to try to do it on your own.

  1. Set aside 10 to 15 minutes to practice. It’s recommended that you do Vipassana when you first wake up in the morning.
  2. Choose a quiet area with little to no distractions.
  3. Sit in a comfortable position. Engage your core, straighten your back, and relax your body.
  4. Close your eyes and breathe normally. Focus on your natural breath and what you feel.
  5. Be mindful of each inhale and exhale. Observe your thoughts, feelings, and sensations without reacting or judging.
  6. If you become distracted, simply observe the distraction and return to your breath.
  7. Aim to do this for at least 5 to 10 minutes when you first start. As you get used to this practice, work up to 15 minutes or longer of Vipassana meditation.

Zen Meditation (Zazen)

Origin & Meaning

Zazen (坐禅) means “seated Zen”, or “seated meditation”, in Japanese. It has its roots in the Chinese Zen Buddhism (Ch’an) tradition, tracing back to the Indian monk Bodhidharma (6th century CE). In the West, its most popular form comes from Dogen Zenji (1200~1253), the founder of the Soto Zen movement in Japan. Similar modalities are practised in the Rinzai school of Zen, in Japan and Korea.

How to do it

It is generally practised seated on the floor over a mat and cushion, with crossed legs. Traditionally it was done in the so-called lotus or half-lotus position, but this is hardly necessary. Nowadays most practitioners sit like this:

Vipassana Meditation

Origin & Meaning

“Vipassana” is a Pali word tha

Types of meditation - Vipassana

t means “insight” or “clear seeing”. It is a traditional Buddhist practice, dating back to 6th century BC. Vipassana-meditation, as taught in the last few decades, comes from the Theravada Buddhist tradition, and was popularized by  S. N. Goenka and the Vipassana movement.

Due to the popularity of Vipassanā-meditation, the “mindfulness of breathing” has gained further popularity in the West as “mindfulness”.

How to do it

[There is some conflicting information on how to practice Vipassana. In general, however, most teachers emphasize  starting with mindfulness of breath in the first stages, to stabilize the mind and achieve “access concentration.” This is more like focused attention meditation. Then the practice moves on to developing “clear insight” on the bodily sensations and mental phenomena, observing them moment by moment and not clinging to any. Here goes an introduction, aimed at beginners. To know more I’d suggest following up the links provided or learning from a teacher (perhaps in a Vipassana retreat).]

Ideally, one is to sit on a cushion on the floor, cross-legged, with your spine erect; alternatively, a chair may be used, but the back should not be supported.

The first aspect is to develop concentration, through samatha practice. This is typically done through breathing awareness.

Focus all your attention, from moment to moment, on the movement of your breath. Notice the subtle sensations of the movement of the abdomen rising and falling. Alternatively, one can focus on the sensation of the air passing through the nostrils and touching the upper lips skin – though this requires a bit more practice, and is more advanced.

As you focus on the breath, you will notice that other perceptions and sensations continue to appear: sounds, feelings in the body, emotions, etc. Simply notice these phenomena as they emerge in the field of awareness, and then return to the sensation of breathing. The attention is kept in the object of concentration (the breathing), while these other thoughts or sensations are there simply as “background noise”.

The object that is the focus of the practice (for instance, the movement of the abdomen) is called the “primary object”. And a “secondary object” is anything else that arises in your field of perception – either through your five senses (sound, smell, itchiness in the body, etc.) or through the mind (thought, memory, feeling, etc.). If a secondary object hooks your attention and pulls it away, or if it causes the desire or aversion to appearing, you should focus on the secondary object for a moment or two, labelling it with a mental note, like “thinking”,  “memory”, “hearing”, “desiring”. This practice is often called “noting”.

A mental note identifies an object in general but not in detail. When you’re aware of a sound, for example, label it “hearing” instead of “motorcycle,” “voices” or “barking dog.” If an unpleasant sensation arises, note “pain” or “feeling” instead of “knee pain” or “my back pain.” Then return your attention to the primary meditation object. When aware of a fragrance, say the mental note “smelling” for a moment or two. You don’t have to identify the scent.

When one has thus gained “access concentration”, the attention is then turned to the object of practice, which is normally thought or bodily sensations. One observes the objects of awareness without attachment, letting thoughts and sensations arise and pass away of their own accord. Mental labelling (explained above) is often used as a way to prevent you from being carried away by thoughts, and keep you in more objectively noticing them.

As a result one develops the clear seeing that the observed phenomena are pervaded by the three “marks of existence”: impermanence (annica), unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) and emptiness of self (annata). As a result, equanimity, peace and inner freedom are developed in relation to these inputs.

Loving Kindness Meditation (Metta Meditation)

Origin & Meaning

loving kindness meditation

Metta is a Pali word that means kindness, benevolence, and goodwill. This practise comes from the Buddhist traditions, especially the Theravada and Tibetan lineages. “Compassion meditation” is a contemporary scientific field that demonstrates the efficacy of metta and related meditative practices.

Demonstrated benefits include: boosting one’s ability to empathize with others; development of positive emotions through compassion, including a more loving attitude towards oneself; increased self-acceptance; greater feeling of competence about one’s life; and an increased feeling of purpose in life (read more in our other post).

How to do it

One sits down in a meditation position, with closed eyes, and generates in his mind and heart feelings of kindness and benevolence. Start by developing loving-kindness towards yourself, then progressively towards others and all beings. Usually this progression is advised:

  1. oneself
  2. a good friend
  3. a “neutral” person
  4. a difficult person
  5. all four of the above equally
  6. and then gradually the entire universe

The feeling to be developed is that of wishing happiness and well-being for all. This practice may be aided by reciting specific words or sentences that evoke the “boundless warm-hearted feeling”, visualizing the suffering of others and sending love; or by imagining the state of another being, and wishing him happiness and peace.

Mantra Meditation (OM Meditation)

Origin & Meaning

types of meditation - mantra meditation beads

mantra is a syllable or word, usually without any particular meaning, that is repeated for the purpose of focusing your mind. It is not an affirmation used to convince yourself of something.

Some meditation teachers insist that both the choice of word, and its correct pronunciation, is very important, due to the “vibration” associated with the sound and meaning, and that for this reason, an initiation into it is essential. Others say that the mantra itself is only a tool to focus the mind, and the chosen word is completely irrelevant.

Mantras are used in Hindu traditions, Buddhist traditions (especially Tibetan and “Pure Land” Buddhism), as well as in Jainism, Sikhism and Daoism (Taoism). Some people call mantra meditation “om meditation”, but that is just one of the mantras that can be used. A more devotion oriented practice of mantras is called japa, and consists of repeating sacred sounds (name of God) with love.

How to do it

Like with most types of meditations, it is usually practised sitting with spine erect, and eyes closed. The practitioner then repeats the mantra in his mind, silently, over and over again during the whole session.

Sometimes this practice is coupled with being aware of the breathing or coordinating with it. In other exercises, the mantra is actually whispered very lightly and softly, as an aid to concentration.

As you repeat the mantra, it creates a mental vibration that allows the mind to experience deeper levels of awareness. As you meditate, the mantra becomes increasingly abstract and indistinct, until you’re finally led into the field of pure consciousness from which the vibration arose.
Repetition of the mantra helps you disconnect from the thoughts filling your mind so that perhaps you may slip into the gap between thoughts. The mantra is a tool to support your meditation practice. Mantras can be viewed as ancient power words with subtle intentions that help us connect to spirit, the source of everything in the universe. (Deepak Chopra)

OM is a well-known example of a mantra. But there are thousands of others. Here are some of the most well-known mantras from the Hindu & Buddhist traditions:

  • om
  • so-ham
  • om namah shivaya
  • om mani padme hum
  • rama
  • yam
  • ham

You may practice for a certain period of time, or for a set number of “repetitions” – traditionally 108 or 1008. In the latter case, beads are typically used for keeping count.

As the practice deepens, you may find that the mantra continues “by itself” like the humming of the mind. Or the mantra may even disappear, and you are left in a state of deep inner peace.

There are many methods of mantra meditation. I explain them in detail, together with why mantras are powerful, in my article on mantra meditation.

Yogic Meditations

Origin & Meaning

OM yogic meditations

There is no one type of meditation which is “Yogic Meditation”, so here it is meant the several meditation types taught in the yoga tradition. Yoga means “union”. The tradition goes as far as 1700 B.C, and has as its highest goal spiritual purification and Self-Knowledge. Classical Yoga divides the practice into rules of conduct (yamas and niyamas), physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and contemplative practices of meditation (pratyaharadharanadhyanasamadhi).

The Yoga tradition is the oldest meditation tradition on earth, and also the one with the widest variety of practices.

How to do it

Here are some types of meditation practised in Yoga. The most common and universal Yoga meditation one is the “third eye meditation”. Other popular ones involve concentrating on a chakra, repeating a mantra, visualization of light, or gazing meditations.

  • Third Eye Meditation — focusing the attention on the “spot between the eyebrows” (called by some “the third eye” or “ajna chakra”). The attention is constantly redirected to this point, as a means to silence the mind. By time the “silent gaps” between thoughts get wider and deeper. Sometimes this is accompanied by physically “looking”, with eyes closed, towards that spot.
  • Chakra Meditation — the practitioner focuses on one of the seven chakras of the body (“centers of energy”), typically doing some visualizations and chanting a specific mantra for each chakra (lamvamramyamhamom). Most commonly it is done on the heart chackra, third eye, and crown chackra.
  • Gazing Meditation (Trataka) — fixing the gaze on an external object, typically a candle, image or a symbol (yantras). It is done with eyes open, and then with eyes closed, to train both the concentration and visualization powers of the mind. After closing the eyes, you should still keep the image of the object in your “mind’s eye”.
  • Kundalini Meditation — this is a very complex system of practice. The goal is the awakening of the “kundalini energy” which lies dormant on the base of the spine, the development of several psychic centers in the body, and, finally, enlightenment. There are several dangers associated with this practice, and it should not be attempted without the guidance of a qualified yogi.
  • Kriya Yoga — is a set of energization, breathing, and meditation exercises taught by Paramahamsa Yogananda. This is more suited for those who have a devotional temperament, and are seeking the spiritual aspects of meditation.
  • Sound Meditation (Nada Yoga) — focusing on sound. Starts with meditation on “external sounds”, such as calming ambient music (like Native American flute music), whereby the student focuses all his attention on just hearing, as a help to quieten and collect the mind. By time the practice evolves to hearing the “internal sounds” of the body and mind. The ultimate goal is to hear the “Ultimate Sound” (para nada), which is a sound without vibration, and that manifests as “OM”.
  • Tantra — unlike the popular view in the West, most Tantra practices have nothing to do with ritualized sex (this was practiced by a minority of lineages. Tantra is a very rich tradition, with dozens of different contemplative practices. The text Vijnanabhairava Tantra, for instance, lists 108 “meditations”, most of them more advanced (already requiring a certain degree of stillness and mind control). Here are some examples from that text:
    • Merge the mind and the senses in the interior space in the spiritual heart.
    • When one object is perceived, all other objects become empty. Concentrate on that emptiness.
    • Concentrate on the space which occurs between two thoughts.
    • Fix attention on the inside of the skull. Close eyes.
    • Meditate on the occasion of any great delight.
    • Meditate on the feeling of pain.
    • Dwell on the reality which exists between pain and pleasure.
    • Meditate on the void in one’s body extending in all directions simultaneously.
    • Concentrate on a bottomless well or as standing in a very high place.
    • Listen to the Anahata [heart chakra] sound.
    • Listen to the sound of a musical instrument as it dies away.
    • Contemplate on the universe or one’s own body as being filled with bliss.
    • Concentrate intensely on the idea that the universe is completely void.
    • Contemplate that the same consciousness exists in all bodies.
  • Pranayama — breathing regulation. It is not exactly meditation, but an excellent practice to calm the mind and prepare it for meditation. There are several different types of Pranayama, but the simplest and most commonly taught one is the 4-4-4-4. This means breathing in counting up to 4, holding for 4 seconds, breathing out for 4 seconds, and holding empty for 4 seconds. Breathe through your nose, and let the abdomen (and not the chest) be the one that moves. Go through a few cycles like this. This regulation of breathing balances the moods and pacifies the body, and can be done anywhere.

Yoga is a very rich tradition, with different lineages, so there are many other techniques. But the ones above are the most well-known; the others are more specific or complex.


User Research, Meditation Guide App

I have to make quick interviews with possible users for the Meditation Guide App. The main point of this interviews is to understand what the different kind of users waits from an app like this one.

For this post, I will describe the different needs that I have identified from the users. These needs will be divided into three different post parts to make them easier to understand.


When I ask my possible user about what they expect from an app like this, I got multiple answers with different necessities and recommendations. But, there were three things that they find extremely important.


For the users seems extremely important to have different levels of meditation guide. It should start with a beginner lever, where someone guides you through the whole process. A medium-level that is a mix between music and guides. An expert level that will be only music or mantra and a timer for finishing the exercise.


Another element to seem important is a timer that helps the user measure their time progress through the use. Also to programme the time and the duration of the meditation progress so it is easy to get through the process and out.


The final part of the expectancies is the music, most of the users said that they will expect that the timer alarm is through Buddhism, calm music that helps the people awake softer. Also, they want to have soft music in the meditation process to keep them calm.

Calming Anxiety

The meditation applications are useful to calm down an anxious mind by offering guided & unstructured video of around 20 minutes (the time differs from app-to-app).

Stress Management

These meditation apps help in determining stress levels and reduce them through meditation tools that consist of images & music.

Deep Sleep

Meditation mobile apps create a nice aura through relaxing music of nature and melody. This helps users in experiencing calm that promotes sleep.

Focus & Concentration

These applications allow their users to block distractions from other apps, texts, calls, and this allows them to focus and concentrate better during work.


Few of the apps offering advanced features allow their users in connecting and maintaining healthy and sound relationships that increase their energy.

Habit & Goal Tracker

The apps allow its users to break habits through its tool that is useful in tracking habits & realizing their goals. It may consist of notifications, reminders (can be customized), and a lot more.

Attain Happiness

The apps offer several features that help their users to experience true happiness. It may consist of guided meditation sessions, nature sounds, and several step-by-step processes to stay in a peaceful and happy space.


Most of these meditation apps offer this functionality that is helpful in boosting the self-esteem of the users by bringing their attention to positive aspects of life.



Woche 1 und 2 (20.05. – 02.06.)

 In jeder Woche setze ich mir Ziele und bestimme den Ablauf meiner Routine. Der Plan ist es jede Woche oder jede zweite Woche meine Workload zu steigern und mich so langsam aber doch an professionelle und strukturierte Content Kreation heran zu wagen. Das ist deshalb so da ich sonst befürchtet habe mit zuviel Workload dieses Projekt gleich mal wieder aufzugeben.

Woche 1

In Woche eins versuchte ich nicht regelmäßig zu posten, sondern je nachdem wie es mir am besten passte. Das Ganze hatte den Sinn zu schauen was für einen Effekt es macht, wenn ich mich nicht an den Algorithmus halte und wie meine Standardzahlen/-statistiken aussehen würden. Die einzige Richtlinien, an die ich mich gehalten habe, war einen Post zwischen 18 und 20 Uhr zu machen.

Ziele für diese Woche waren andere Profile in meinen Post zu verlinken, in den Stories anderer Profile erwähnt zu werden und Follower dazu zu gewinnen und am besten wäre das natürlich wenn die Follower Unbekannte werden. Bis jetzt besteht nämlich der Großteil meiner Follower schafft aus Personen, die ich aus meinem Privatleben kenne und die von meinem privaten Account auf meinen Designer-Account aufmerksam gemacht wurden.

Ein weiteres Ziel war es Stories zu posten – so viele wie möglich. In Woche 1 kam mein Gesicht nie in einer Story vor. Das hatte vor allem den Grund, dass ich mich doch sehr unwohl dabei gefühlt habe, mein Gesicht im Internet zu zeigen.

Das Endresultat der ersten Woche auf Instagram sieht so aus:

Ich konnte meine Follower von 111 auf 122 steigern. Insgesamt war das dann eine Steigerung von 1,09%. In dieser Woche wurden zwei Postings gemacht. Bei einem von beiden habe ich Self-Promotion angewendet. Self-Promotion bedeutet in diesem Zusammenhang, dass ich meinen Beitrag in meiner Story meines Design- als auch Privat-Accounts geteilt habe. Auch eine weitere Person hat mich in seiner/ihrer Story erwähnt. Erreichte Profile waren 92, Content Interaktionen waren 42.

Woche 2

In Woche 2 setze ich mir das Ziel jeden Tag zum posten und täglich Stories zu machen. Die Zeit wurde wieder fixiert auf zwischen 18 Uhr und 20 Uhr. Die Ziele für diese Woche waren andere Profile zu den Post zu verlinken, in einer Story von andere Personen vor zu kommen, neue Follower zu gewinnen, mein Gesicht in den Stories zeigen, und unter Postings von anderen Personen und Profilen zu kommentieren.

Woche 2 zusammengefasst:

Ich konnte meine Followeranzahl um 4,1% steigern. Ich habe allerdings um 12,1% weniger Profile erreicht und hatte 51,7% weniger Content Interaktionen. Das Fazit ist, dass das zeigen meines Gesichtes in der Story positiv ausgewirkt hat und viele Leute auf meine Story reagiert haben. Weiters habe ich versucht immer Abstimmungen in meinen Stories vorkommen zu lassen und Leute weiter zu Interaktionen zu bringen. Ebenfalls habe ich versucht meine Stories immer auf meine Postings abzustimmen und so einen geschlossenen Kreis zu bilden. Das bedeutet auch Leute durch meine Stories auf meine Postings aufmerksam zu machen. 

Die Statistik besagt, weiters, genau das was von vorne herein auch schon die Ergebnisse aus der User Research waren:

Meinem Profil Folgen mehr Frauen als Männer. 51, 5 % Frauen, 48,5 % Männer.

Weiters ist meine Zielgruppe zwischen 18 und 34 Jahren alt und ungefähr um 18 Uhr am aktivsten. Für die nächsten Wochen setze ich mir das Ziel vor 18 Uhr zu posten um dann in dem aktiven Zeitraum schon ein Posting in dem Feed meiner Follower zu haben. Wohnhaft sind die meisten meiner Follower in Graz und Wien bzw. dem deutschsprachigen Raum: Das bedeutet, dass meine Postings und Stories großteils bzw. hauptsächlich deutschsprachig bleiben werden.

Posts aus Woche 1 & 2

User Research Methode: Eye-Tracking

Bei der Überlegung welche User Research Methode getestet werden sollte, erschien die Eye-Tracking1 Methode als interessant. Hierbei wurde nach Programmen gesucht die, das Eye-Tracking erfassen sollen und dann auch getestet werden. Bei der Suche wurden zwei Apps ausgewählt:

App „Access“

Beim erstmaligen öffnen der App muss das Gesicht gescannt werden, indem man einen Punkt auf dem Smartphone verfolgt. Des weitern ist auszuwählen wie man weiter „klicken“ will, dazu stehen Optionen wie blinzeln oder Lächeln zu verfügen. Wenn dann alles kalibriert ist, bekommt man ein abgespecktes User-Interface in dem man Apps wie zB Facebook, Youtube, Netflix und Google nutzt. 

Die App lässt sich teilweise nur schwer bedienen(siehe Video), jedoch mit viel Geduld funktioniert sie. 

App Eye Camera

Die App funktioniert simpel, einfach aus dem App Store herunterladen und los geht es mit den Fotografien. Die Elemente, die beim Eye-Tracking erfasst werden, werden gelb markiert. 

Die App scheint zu funktionieren, jedoch wäre es spannend zu Wissen woher die App ihre Daten bezieht, leider habe ich im App Store keine alternativen gefunden, um diese Resultate zu testen bzw. zu vergleichen. 

Eye-Tracking by Brainwaves

Zusätzlich zu dem Thema Eye-Tracking möchte ich auf einen Ted Talk hinweisen der sehr spannend ist: „Eye tracking by brainwaves“ Hierbei wird ein Prototyp gezeigt, der einerseits die Bewegungen von den einzelnen Gehirnwellen und andererseits die Augenbewegung aufnimmt. Somit kann genau erfasst werden, ob jemand die Augen offen hat oder nicht, aufmerksam ist oder nicht und ob man sehr konzentriert ist oder nicht.

1Eye-Tracking: Mit der Hilfe eines Eye-Tracking-Geräts wird genau gemessen, wie der User auf natürliche Weise mit Websites, Anwendungen, physischen Produkten oder Umgebungen interagiert.

Wann sollte man welche User Research Methode anwenden?

Sollte man eine Qualitative User Research mit einem persönlichen Interview durchführen oder doch besser eine Quantitative Research mit einer E-Mail-Umfrage? Oft ist es schwierig zu Wissen welche User Research Methoden man für den eigenen Prozess anwenden soll. Daher ist es um so wichtiger zu wissen, wann man welche Methode verwendet, um gute Ergebnisse zu erzielen. 

Auf der folgenden grafischen Darstellung sind die gängigsten Methoden der User Research zu sehen. Die Methoden lassen sich allgemein in folgende Bereiche einteilen: QUALITATIVE, QUANTITATIV, ATTITUDINAL und BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH wobei manche Methoden auch überschneidend sein können, so genannte Hybriden.


„Natural use of product“ ist die natürliche Interaktion mit einem Produkt, hier gibt es keine genaue Vorgehensweise, sondern man lernt hier aus dem Verhalten der Nutzer. Es wird beobachtet wie das Produkt genutzt wird und führt aus diesen Erkenntnissen Anpassungen am Produkt durch.

Das „Scripted“ ist die szenarienbasierte Interaktion mit einem Produkt. Hierbei wird ein Proband mit verschieden Szenarien konfrontiert und sollte diese mit dem Produkt lösen.

Bei der „De-contextualized” hat der Proband keinen direkten Kontakt mit dem Produkt.

Combination” wird oft dann verwendet, wenn es um die Testung der  Konzepte geht.

Zu beachten ist auch, dass gewisse Methoden nur in bestimmten Phasen der Produktentwicklung angewendet werden können. Hier ist eine Tabelle zu sehen, die zeigt wann welche Methode in welcher Prozessphase zum Einsatz kommt.


Welche Methode in einem speziellen Fall anzuwenden ist, ist abhängig von der aktuellen Prozessphase und von den Fragen, die durch die User Research beantwortet werden sollen.

Semler, Jan/Tschierschke, Kira: App Design. Das umfassende Handbuch. 2., aktual. und erw. Auflage. Bonn: Rheinwerk 2019

Gründe für User Research

Heutzutage sind viele Unternehmen der Ansicht, dass sie keine Ressourcen für User Research haben oder keine Notwendigkeit in der User Research sehen und auch nicht den Mehrwert daran erkennen. Doch aus welchen Gründen betreibt man jetzt User Research? Man führt User Research wenn man folgende Ziele verfolgt:

  • Ein Produkt zu erschaffen, das einen echten Mehrwert für die Nutzer hat
  • Ein Design zu erstellen, dass intuitiv nutzbar ist (Usability) und Freude bereitet (Joy of Use)
  • Dass es Nachvollziehbar ist, wie sich die „Return on Investment“ ergibt. 

Wie erreicht man nun diese Ziele? 
Die Antworten bekommt man nach dem durchführen der User Research, hierbei werden verschiedene Methoden aus der User Research angewendet (auf die verschiedenen Methoden werde ich in meinem nächsten Blog Eintrag genauer eingehen).

Doch was genau bedeutet das jetzt? Lassen Sie mich anhand eines Beispiels erklären warum die User Research wichtig ist:

Betrachten wir die Markteinführung der E-Scooter: Man dachte, dass die E-Scooter eine Stadt umweltfreundlicher machen würden, es gäbe weniger Staus und der Mensch wäre dadurch mobil, ohne von den öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln abhängig zu sein2 . Wer jedoch einmal in einer Stadt war, wo die E-Scooter verfügbar sind, der weiß, dass dadurch das Stadtbild merkbar beeinträchtigt wird. 

Hierbei wird deutlich verständlich, wie wichtig es ist, eine User Research durchzuführen und sich folgendes Fragen: Welche Probleme treten hierbei für die Menschen und das Umfeld auf? Wie können wir helfen, dieses Problem zu lösen?  

Das hier war nur ein Beispiel von vielen, jedoch wird einem hierbei bewusst, wie wichtig die User Research für unseren Alltag ist.


1 Semler, Jan/Tschierschke, Kira: App Design. Das umfassende Handbuch. 2., aktual. und erw. Auflage. Bonn: Rheinwerk 2019

How do we interact with misinformation? Part 1

An empirical user research questionnaire about how we interact with social media platforms and false or misleading content. Furthermore how the design influences us and if labeling content is helpful?

In 2018 the European Union did a survey on “The digital transformation of news media and the rise of disinformation and fake news”. In this report they stated that misinformation or fake news is pretty old. The first known case of fake news goes back to the 16th century. However, this may be an argument for some people, it is clear by now that social media and the spread of fake news and misinformation have become a problem. First of all we need to define some wordings:


Falsity refers to inconsistency in claimed facts (Spears, 2015), for instance, when a car manufacture claims that the car’s gas mileage is higher than it actually is.


Some content creates an impression about a product, a story or news that is untrue (fake) or about features, information or facts that do not exist.

Misleading and false content affects the choices of users and their opinions.

The Questionnaire

In this phase of the research some personal qualitativ interviews based on a standardized questionnaire with a few participants will be conducted and analyzed. The main interest of this survey is how people interact with fake or misleading information and how we can change the apperance or interaction process through design. Therefore the following questions will be asked:

  1. Demographic data like gender, age, education level, employment and family status.
  2. Where do you usually watch/read news or get information on certain topics?
  3. Which social media platforms do you use?
  4. How often do you visit these platforms daily/weekly/monthly?
  5. Have you ever experienced misleading content on these platforms? If so, please elaborate.
  6. How do you interact with misleading or false content? Please elaborate.
  7. What is your reaction when you find out the content you found is misleading or false?
  8. What do you think about labeled content?
  9. Which additional (background) information of a statement/fact is important to be shown directly for you as a viewer?
  10. What makes a website/content/information trustworthy?
  11. How trustworthy is social media in your personal opinion and why? (Scale 1 – 10)
  12. Do you think the design of information or content has an effect? If so, please elaborate.
  13. Do you want do add something?


(PDF) Impact of misleading/false advertisement to consumer behaviour. International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 2018 Vol.16 No.4, pp.453 – 465. Available from: [accessed Dec 20 2020].

Study on fake news and disinformation from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre.

“UX Without User Research Is Not UX”

In meiner letzten beruflichen Tätigkeit macht ich die Erfahrung, dass die User Research ein wichtiger Bestandteil bei der Erstellung eines digitalen Produktes ist. Deswegen beschäftigte mich dieses Thema auch bei meiner Bachelorarbeit. Bei meiner Bachelorarbeit erstellte ich ein Werk das kurz und prägnant einige der wichtigsten Methoden, Begriffe und Abläufe eines User-Experience-Design-Prozesses erklärt. Aus diesen Erfahrungen kam meine Interesse für die User Research. 

Spannend finde ich es, dass die User Research versucht mit Hilfe von Methoden Datenanalyse und Beobachtungen mit dem Ziele, Problem und Bedürfnisse der Menschen zu verstehen. Die User Research lässt sich grob in folgende Bereiche teilen:  QUALITATIVE, QUANTITATIV, ATTITUDINAL und  BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH.

Bei der quantitativen Research bekommt man ein allgemeines Verständnis, wie sich viele Nutzende im Allgemeinen verhalten. Hier wird nach dem „Was“ gefragt. Die qualitative Methode hilft dabei einen detaillierten Überblick der einzelnen NutzerIn zu bekommen. Zusätzlich nimmt man zum Beispiel bei einem persönlichen Interview auch die Emotionen der Probanden wahr. Diese Methode fragt nach dem „Warum“. Attitudinal Research erklärt die Einstellungen und Meinungen, welche die Menschen zu einem Produkt haben und was sie darüber sagen. Behavioral Research wie der Name schon sagt, fragt nachdem Verhaltensmuster der Menschen und wie sie etwas tun.


Loranger, Hoa: (10. 08. 2014): UX Without User Research Is Not UX. In:
Semler, Jan/Tschierschke, Kira: App Design. Das umfassende Handbuch. 2., aktual. und erw. Auflage 2019. Bonn: Rheinwerk 2019
Rohrer, Christian (12.10. 2014): When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods. In:
Schiling, Karolina: Apps machen. Der Kompaktkurs für Designer. München: Carl Hanser 2016