Die folgenden acht Eigenschaften mögen einen nicht überraschen, jedoch möchte ich mich damit beschäftigen, warum diese so wichtig sind und wie wir sie für die Gestaltung von Lehranwendungen anwenden können.
1. Mulitmodales Lernen Um neues Wissen gut abrufbar abzuspeichern, empfiehlt es sich, verschiedene Modis anzusprechen. Beispielsweise einen gesprochenen Vortrag durch bildhafte Abbildungen zu unterstützen. Hierbei werden mehrere Assoziationsketten und Verknüpfungen zu einer Information gelegt. Da das Ansprechen von mehreren Sinnesorganen nach  auch eher in Erinnerung bleibt, ist es sinnvoll für die Gestaltung von Für interaktive Anwendungen
2. Semantische Einbettung Da das Gehirn als semantisches Netzwerk aufgebaut ist, ist es hilfreich, wenn verschiedene Queues auf Wissen zugreifen, bzw. wenn mehrere Verknüpfungen zu einer Information führen. Bereits vorhandenes Wissen, dient hierbei als Gedankenstütze für neu erlerntes. In diesem Netzwerk können neue Inhalte an zuvor erlerntem angeknüpft werden. Es macht somit Sinn, neue Themen mit wohlmöglich bekanntem Wissen einzuleiten.
3. Emotionen Emotionen haben eine starke Auswirkung auf unsere kognitiven Fähigkeiten, sowie Wahrnehmung, Aufmerksamkeit, Lernen, Gedächtnis und das Lösen von Problemen. Sowohl positive wie auch negative Emotionen können Lernförderlich sein. Beispielsweise wirken sich Belohnungen sowie auch milder Druck und Bestrafungen auf den Lernerfolg aus.
4. Tiefe der Verarbeitung Je tiefer etwas gelernt wird, also wie häufig, wie elaboriert, wie detailliert, desto eher ist die neu gewonnene Information effizient abrufbar. Wenn Verbindungen zu anderen verwandten Themen hergestellt werden und das neu erlernte im Kontext gesehen wird, wird der Effekt verstärkt, da es zu einer tieferen Auseinandersetzung kommt.
5. Relevanz Das angestrebte Wissen sollte eine gewisse persönliche Relevanz haben, wie beispielsweise das Interessenfeld des Nutzers oder eine allgemeine Relevanz beinhalten.
Quellen  Max-Planck Gesellschaft: Lernen mit allen Sinnen, 05.02.2015 https://www.mpg.de/8930937/vokabel-lernen-gesten
Beim Gedächtnis lautet einer der zentralen Erkenntnisse, dass je öfter gelernt wird, desto schneller wird (dieselbe) Sache erlernt. Das heißt, je öfter eine Tätigkeit getan wird oder eine Information abgerufen wird, desto schneller und präziser ist sie verfügbar.
Man spricht in der Psychologie von einem Mehrspeichermodell, bei dem man von mehreren Gedächtnisarten ausgeht . Wenn ein Reiz registriert wird, nimmt das sensorische Gedächtnis (Ultra-Kurzzeitgedächtnis) dies auf. Das sensorische Gedächtnis ist die Verbindung zwischen Wahrnehmung und Gedächtnis und läuft unbewusst ab. Es handelt sich teils um flüchtige Sinneseindrücke, die nur kurz zwischengespeichert werden. Es kommt im weiteren Schritt zur Filterung und Differenzierung der verschiedenen einwirkenden Reize. Die gefilterten Sinneseindrücke gelangen dann zum Arbeitsgedächtnis bzw. Kurzzeitgedächtnis. Dies ist der erste bewusste Teil unseres Gedächtnisses. Fünf bis neun Informationseinheiten können hier für eine kurze Zeit gespeichert werden. Für die Aufrechterhaltung solcher Information spielt die Aufmerksamkeit eine wichtige Rolle. Dies kann leicht durch Störungen, wie beispielsweise Geräusche, gestört werden. Werden Elemente aus dem Kurzzeitgedächtnis mit genug Aufmerksamkeit vollzogen oder oft genug wiederholt, kommt es zur Speicherung im Langzeitgedächtnis .
Die Reise vom Kurzzeitgedächtnis zum Langzeitgedächtnis (Konsolidierung)
Die Festigung von Gedächtnisinhalten wird Konsolidierung genannt und beschreibt die Bewegung von Kurzzeitinformation vom Hippocampus zum Cortex. Hier werden Gedächtnis-Engramme auf molekularer Ebene von Proteinen festgelegt . Engramme sind Veränderungen des Nervengewebes zur Fixierung von Gelerntem. Es werden quasi „Bahnen“ in der Hirnstruktur gelegt, die später willkürlich oder unwillkürlich abrufbar sind und die physiologische Grundlage des Gedächtnisses bilden . Dieser Vorgang findet nicht nur einmal bei der Einprägung statt, sondern immer wieder erneut, wenn die Erinnerung aus dem Langzeitgedächtnis abgerufen wird. Durch die erneute bzw. immer wieder auftretende Konsolidierung kann der Gedächtnisinhalt zwar gefestigt, jedoch auch verfälscht werden. Dies führt dazu, dass im Laufe der Jahre immer mehr Erinnerungen unbewusst abgewandelt werden. Ebenso sind neu gebildete Erinnerung anfälliger für Störungen und können leichter in Vergessenheit geraten .
Wenn es zu einer Speicherung im Langzeitgedächtnis kam, können diese Inhalte in verschiedene Kategorien unterteilt werden. Generell gibt es zwei Langzeitgedächtnistypen, nämlich das deklarative (explizite) und das prozedurale (implizite) Gedächtnis. Diese Typen sind in verschiedenen Gehirnarealen abgespeichert und dadurch physisch voneinander abgetrennt. Kommt es beispielsweise zu einer Beschädigung eines Gehirnareals, kann das betroffene Wissen nicht mehr abgerufen werden, während die anderen Inhalte problemlos genutzt werden können. Die zwei expliziten passieren bewusst, während die zwei impliziten Gedächtnistypen unbewusst passieren :
Episodisches Gedächtnis (explizit, bewusst): Hier sind biografische Daten abgespeichert, wie beispielsweise die Erinnerung an einen Urlaub, Erlebnisse mit Freunden oder unseren ersten Schultag.
Semantisches Gedächtnis (explizit, bewusst): Erlernte Fakten, wie beispielsweise „die Hauptstadt von Frankreich ist Paris“, die Geburtsdaten der Eltern, Vokabeln usw.
Prozedurales Gedächtnis (implizit, unbewusst): Das Gedächtnis für Bewegungsabfolgen wie Laufen, Fahrradfahren, Autofahren usw.
Perzeptuelles Gedächtnis (implizit, unbewusst): Dieser Gedächtnistyp ist eng mit dem Prozeduralen Gedächtnis verbunden. Es hilft uns bekannte Personen, Orte, Gegenstände wieder zu erkennen.
Das Gedächtnis ist eine subjektive Repräsentation der objektiven Welt. Es kommt schnell zu Abweichungen, Überschreibungen oder Störungen. Je nach Queue werden Inhalte verschieden abgerufen. So kommt es je nach Wording oder Kontext zu verschiedenen Ergebnissen und ist somit stark fehlerbehaften. Beispielsweise könnte man beim schnellen Hinsehen eine Maus mit einem Maulwurf verwechseln, wenn man zuvor einen Maulwurfshügel gesehen hat.
Mit dem Wissen, wie Information verarbeitet und abgespeichert wird, möchte ich Verständnis dafür erlangen, wie man Inhalte als Designer, von beispielsweise Lernanwendungen, gezielter vermitteln kann. Nachdem erarbeitet wurde, was im Gehirn grob passiert, wenn Dinge erlebt und erlernt werden, kann betrachtet werden, welche äußeren und inneren Gegebenheiten diesen Vorgang leichter in Gang setzen. Dies soll helfen um aus dem flüchtigen Bedienen einer Anwendung, eine langanhaltende Erinnerung bzw. Wissen zu formen.
Um Inhalte zu gestalten, die Information lehren oder eine Botschaft vermitteln sollen, müssen wir verstehen, wie der Mensch sich neues Wisseneurn aneignet. Um beispielsweise das Langzeitgedächtnis anzusprechen, müssen gewisse Gegebenheiten vorhanden sein. Im Interview mit meiner Freundin Ashley Huffer, die derzeit ihren Master in Psychologie in Freiburg absolviert, konnte ich ein wenig in das Thema einfinden und es mit eigener Recherche erweitern.
In der Psychologie muss zwischen Lernen und Gedächtnis unterschieden werden. Zwar hängen die beiden Dinge stark miteinander zusammen, müssen jedoch getrennt betrachtet werden.
Die Definition vom Lernen, ist eine relativ dauerhafte Verhaltensänderung, die auf Erfahrung zurückgeht . Während das Gedächtnis in drei Hauptprozesse untergliedert wird, worauf ich später weiter eingehen werde. Man unterscheidet beim Lernen zwischen dem assoziativen Lernen, wozu die klassische Konditionierung und die operante Konditionierung gehört, sowie zwischen dem Beobachtungslernen. Generell wird beim Assoziativen Lernen entweder ein Reiz (klassische Konditionierung) oder eine Reaktion mit den Folgen (operante Konditionierung) assoziiert.
Klassische Konditionierung Hier werden zwei Stimulus miteinander verknüpft. Man spricht dabei auch von einer Reiz-Reiz-Assoziation. Ein Beispiel wäre einen Hund darauf zu konditionieren, dass nach einem Glockenklingen, der Hund sein Essen bekommt. Anfangs wird das Glockenläuten vor dem Essen keinerlei Bedeutung für den Hund haben. Nach einer Weile sind Verhaltens Änderungen zu finden, da der Hund lernt, die Glocke mit dem Essen zu assoziieren. Somit wird ein Stimulus, nämlich ein Ton mit dem Stimulus vom Essen miteinander verknüpft . Ein persönliches Beispiel wäre, dass ich beim Lesen unglaublich oft einschlafe. Da ich über viele Jahre meistens nur am Abend lese, habe ich mich selbst darauf konditioniert, vom Lesen müde zu werden. Das ist nicht immer praktisch.
Die klassische Konditionierung kann für interaktive Anwendungen oder in der Informationsgestaltung verschieden angewendet werden. Beispielsweise wäre bereits das Vibrieren eines Gerätes in Verbindung mit einer Aktion (beispielsweise ein Error) ist meiner Meinung nach in interaktiven Anwendungen oder Informationsgestaltung eher schwierig anzuwenden, da diese „trainiert“ werden muss. Denkbar wäre eine Umsetzung in einem Serios Game oder einer Anwendung, die über einen längeren Zeitraum bedient werden kann. Ein typisches Beispiel aus dem Design-Bereich wäre jedoch die Gestaltung von Werbung. Hier werden oftmals neutrale Objekte, wie beispielsweise ein Parfüm mit gewissen Eigenschaften verknüpft. Ein Parfüm, das für den Nutzer keinerlei Bedeutung hat, kann durch Werbung mit Eigenschaften wie Erotik, Glück, Zufriedenheit und Wohlbefinden verknüpft werden. Die Bedeutung von kontextueller Information übertragen sich in Werbungen auf das ursprünglich neutrale Produkt.
Operante Konditionierung Bei der operanten Konditionierung wird eine Reaktion mit einem Stimulus verknüpft. Es wird erlernt, dass eine Verhaltensweise eine bestimmte Konsequenz mit sich zieht. Dies bezieht sich auf negative Konsequenzen, wie eine Strafe, jedoch auch für positive Ereignisse. Wenn mein Verhalten in einer gewissen Situation eine positive Konsequenz ermöglicht, dann werde ich in der gleichen Situation auch wieder das gleiche Verhalten aufweisen. Eine Verhaltensweise kann also durch Belohnung verstärkt werden und durch Bestrafung abgeschwächt werden .
Das Modell der operanten Konditionierung findet sich in den Grundsätzen der Gamification wieder. Hier werden bestimmte Ereignisse belohnt oder bestraft, um ein gewisses Ziel zu erreichen. Im Bereich der Wissensvermittlung kann dies gut umgesetzt werden, indem man den Nutzer beispielsweise bei einem Quiz Punkte für richtige Antworten gibt.
As we saw in the previous articles, one of the role of science centers is to introduce participatory experiences and provide effective learning content and techniques. While traditional museum emphasize static displays of objects and artifacts, science centers have followed the more dynamic philosophy of the chinese proverb : « I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand » . Since learning is a complex concept, we will try here to explain it as well as the strategies used by science centers to adress this goal.
Learning is a dynamic process in which the learner uses sensory inputs and constructs meaning out of it.It is what people do when they want to make sense of the world around them. It may involve enhancing in skills, knowledge, understanding, values, feelings, attitudes and capactity to reflect. Effective learning leads to change, development and the desire to learn more.
People be trained to learn to learn as they learn to see as learning consists both of constructing meaning and constructing systems of meaning. The crucial action of construction meaning is mental where it happens in the mind. Physical actions such as hands on experience may be necessay for learning that effectively for children. However it is not sufficient while we need to provide activities which engage the mind as well as the hands.
Learning is a social activity that out learning is intimately associated with our connection with other human beings, our teachers, our peers, our familiy as well as casual acquaintances, including the people before us or next to us at the exhibit. Learning is contextual as we do not learn isolated facts and theories in some abstract ehtereal land of the mind separate from the rest of our lives, we learn in relation to what else we know, what we believe, our prejudice and our fears .
Learning is divided into 3 categories :
Formal learning : school experience, teacher or staff might involve worksheets, often passive and may involve assessment
Selft directed learning : led by the learner when they are interested in a subject or motivated by a specific need (school project, vocational interest)
Informal learning : unplanned casual encounters that lead to new insights, ideas or conversation. Types of learning that always introduced in a museum setting are related to how well visitors understand and regulate their own thinking process as summarized by the following description.
Learning takes time : the 4 stages of the learning model :
Stage 1 : Self Awareness – Don’t know that you don’t know
This is the first stage of learning. The individual doesn’t understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. The lenght of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimilus to learn. You don’t know where you are and what you are doing.
Stage 2 : Self Appreciation – Know that you don’t know
The learner doesn’t understand or know how to do something but he recognizes the deficit. This is the most difficult stage and it is where the learning begins. A lot of mistakes are going to be made during this learning process.
Stage 3 : Self Engagement – Know about it, but you have to think about it
The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledges requires concentration and effort. This stage is easer than the previous one but still requires concentration.
Stage 4 : Selft directed learning – Know it so well you don’t have to think about it
The individual had a lot of practice with a skill that has become a second nature and can be performed easily. He may be able to teach to other people depending on how and when it was learned.
The model of the exploratorium for learning
Science and children museum’s followed the learning strategy model of the Exploratorim because it put the visitor in a very active role as a learner : Experimenting, Hypothsizing, Interpreting and drawing conclusions. This model integrate 4 importants aspect of the learning environment : immediate apprehendability, physical interactivity, conceptual coherence and diversity of learning modes .
immediate apprehendability : capacity to create effortless backdrops. The aim is to limit the cognitive overload also named as the museum fatigue. Shettle found that the average visitor views an exhibit unit for 20 seconds and tours a complete exhibit for a maximum of 14 minutes. It means that science centers are able to draw the attention of the viewer for a very limited period of time. In order to capitalize on that time it is important not to require the reading of extensive text nor concentration on visual aids that would try the patience of the average viewer. This concept is close to the idea of affordance defined by Donald Norman.
physical interactivity : Research on visitor learning in museums suggests that interactivity promotes engagement, understanding and recall of exhibits. Some studies in the exploratorium identified 5 common pitifalls for designing exhibits with high levels of interactivity or multiple interactive features : multiple options with equal salience can overwhelm visitors, interactivity by multiple simultaneous users can lead to disruption, interactivity can desrupt the comprehension of the phenomen.
conceptual coherence : one of the main goal of science centers is to give visitors the big picture around a subject. They are using various techniques to make abstract concepts and themes more apparent to visitors. Achieving high levels of thematic clarity for exhibitions may be particularly difficult in an open environment.
diversity of learning modes
Howard gardner developed a theory on the dissimilar ways that individuals learn and process information, which called the multiple intelligences theory. According to gardner’s theory, visitors might show well built leaning skills in any of seven different style categories that summarized in the following tables :
Through this different categorisations of learning profiles, Dawson tried to show how museum communication of meaning would affect those different types of learners :
The concepts of visitors involvement and participatory exhibit have undergone some basic changes in recent years as a result of museum research on viewer attention span and of nonmuseum research on cognitive and affective processes. Participatory exhibits actively involve the visitor in discovering information through his own participation in the demonstration process. Successful participatory learning devices are those that allow manipulation, experimentation and variation. For an instructionally efficient and effective exhibit, some feedback loop between the person and object appears to be necessary .
In the video underneath, Nina Simon is explaining a few rules and BPE of a good visitor engagement. She also explains why affordance is particularly important when designing an exhibition.
The role of museums in lifelong learning
Lifelong learning is the ability to constantly update and expand your knowledge in a variety of fields. It helps you to survive, to engage and shape your vision of the world. Lifelong learning comprises all phases of learning from preschool to post retirement. Museums take place in this learning, and propose content for all age groups.
Literacy is a person who has all the abilities to be able to engage deeply herself with a specific topic. For this, she needs 3 components :
knowledge : about the specific topic
skills : direct to the tasks or to apply the knowlege
volition : will to engage and do something
Scientific literacy : a person who has the will to engage in a recent discourse about science and technology which requires the competences to explain phenomena scientifically (knowledge), evaluate and design scientific enquiries (skills) and interpret data and evidences scientifically (skills and knowledge).
A visitor who really uses a museum content to its full extend, is called a museum literate person.
The 8 dimensions of museum literacy :
curiosity, motivation and volition = the interest to will to do something inside the museum
information processung competence = skills to use the information which is presented
social competence = being able to interact either with the staff at the museum or with other visitors
emotional competencies = self regulation on the other hand to allo feelings during a museum exhibit
pre knowledge of a subject
visual literacy = the ability to interepet the signs and images
location and behavior competence : the ability to orient oneself in a museum and manoeuver through the differe offers of a museum
appreciation of the exhibit = valuation of the objects of our cultural heritage
Application of thoses principles through the Dargis museum of Munich.
The museum is in position to make a decision about which techniques and approaches are been utilized with respect to specific communication goals. In order to learn, a visitor first has to be motivated which is usually the case since visitors are chosing to go on science centers. Then, exhibitions designer must pay attention to provide immediate apprehendability, physical interactivity, conceptual coherence and to adress the multiple learning modes availables through the use of different communication devices. It is always useful to evaluate afterwards the vision of visitors after an exhibition in terms of learning and enjoyment, to evaluate if the global design exhibition experience is successful or not.
 Kimche, L. (1978). Science centers: a potential for learning. Science 199, 270–273.
 Ahmad, S., Abbas, M.Y., Taib, Mohd.Z.Mohd., and Masri, M. (2014). Museum Exhibition Design: Communication of Meaning and the Shaping of Knowledge. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 153, 254–265.
 Allen, S. (2004). Designs for learning: Studying science museum exhibits that do more than entertain. Sci. Ed. 88, S17–S33.
Permanent exhibition : the brain , intelligence, consciousness, emotion
I was particularly impressed by this exhibition. The space is really big and allow you to explore freely like you enter a curiosity cabinet. Each area of the exhibition focus on a topic related to the brain. This exhibition deals with everything related to brain. Visitors can explore the organ through all perspectives : anatomy, personality, learning, perception, consciousness and sleep. There are several hands-on exhibits where visitors can try games and play with their memory.
On the opposite of the first BPE we described in the COSA center, I found the graphics in this museum much more comprehensible and visible as you can see in the picture below :
When entering the exhibition I was surprised to see this little robot in the middle of the path. Its aim is to guide the visitor through the exhibition. It can talk and guide you through the stations while providing explainations. A lot of childs were playing with it. I find the idea interesting since of the coronavirus situation it allows you to have explaination without any guide. I was impressed that it attracted so much childs either.
This picture shows the setup of the EEG sampling (electro- encephalography). This is something that could be complex to explain, but that is quite easy to show. It work by placing electrodes on the head and the inputs are recolted and processed by a computer.
The exhibition uses a lot of tactile devices as this one. On this screen, you can learn about anatomy and functions of the brain by simply clicking on the area where you want to have information about. The brain is represented in 3D and you can look at it through different angles.
The next part deals with the topic of drugs and intoxication. I really liked how it was depict and the little windows which allow you to see how it looks like. Since those products are usually prohibben it’s not easy to see how they look. I found the pictures on the wall really clear.
This part of the museum was more showing than hands-on, but we can find a lot of hands-on experiments in the science center part. The success of this first exhibition for me resides in the clear graphics, and 3D representations of complex topics around neuroscience, which help to understand it without too much difficulty.
Hands-on experiments in the Science Center
This science center is really focus on children hands-on approaches experiments. It presents the themas : energy and lifting, acoustics and music, physics and technology, body and fitness. Every setup and activity is really simple to allow young children to interact with.
Energy and Lifting
On the bottom floor of the Science Center, everything revolves around the theme of energy and lifting. Hands-on experiments make it easier to understand the law of the lever, hydraulic lift and power transmission and the generation of electricty from water power and solar energy.
The question that must rise into everyone’s mind are : How do turbines work? How can we produce electricity from generators? Different solar energy experiments offer insight into the technology of photovoltaics. And the water experiment area invites us to get our hands wet, raise and dam water, and discover the incredible power that lies hidden in water.
Acoustics and Music
The first floor of the Science Center is devoted to the phenomena of acoustics. From the wave nature of sound to the exploration sounds and noises and the transfer of sound to the human ear, here visitors can explore everything relating to the theme of sound.
A special highlight is the “Feel Mozart” area: with a violin you can actually walk on, the vibrations of music can be not only heard, but also felt.
In the Target Singing area, you can check if you’ve hit all the right notes. And finally, in the screaming cabin you can test out the volume of your own voice.
Physics and Technology
The second floor of the Science Center offers a myriad of experiments in physics, technology, and mathematics. Simple experiments provide confirmation of great natural laws: build a bridge and then test it out right away, launch a rocket using compressed air, make a ball float as if by magic, feel the aerodynamic lift with your own body. . . here you’ll learn what forces are capable of doing!
Questions come up and are answered by doing experiments. How do the fastest and slowest gears work? Why is fine powder used for cement and coffee? Nothing compares to experiencing it for yourself!
Body and Fitness
Also on the second floor, a large area of the Science Center is devoted to the dexterity, movement, and health of the human body. Our own body is the focus here with simple experiments and athletic contests.
These two examples highlight the importance of good graphics and the of haptics in science centers. Good graphics help to categorize sometimes complex information and have the “big picture” around a subject, while haptic supports, whether highly technological or not, help to apprehend concepts, test them to understand them, and facilitate memorization.
In the next article I will try to answer to the question around the learning strategies :
Which strategies are the best for public implication and a better learning ?
How to create funny but educational experiences ?
Why is multisense particularly interesting for exhibition design and learning ?
I will continue the exploration of a few Best Pratice Examples (BPE) by showing in those 2 articles an analysis of two science centers I had the chance to visit here before lockdown in Graz and Salzburg.
The COSA Science Center of Graz
In december, I could go through the COSA science center of Graz during around 2 hours. Unfortunately, I could’nt access to the AR/VR part because of covid restriction, but I could go through the main rooms and get the main idea of the museum here.
There are different rooms in the COSA Center. In the Experimentarium, you can find a lot of hands on approaches and explanations about scientific phenomenas. I’ll detail the medecine experince presented in the cosa MedLab. You can also learn about technology and how are made cars.
I could only attend those, but the science center also proposes special exhibitions and contents through the COSA Plus program and COSA community. Those are social events when you can talk to different partners or guests, and there is also some special workshops and sciences show where professional can explain experiments.
We accessed the exhibit with a guide and an other familie. He explained us a bit about the content of each room and then we could go through the content freely and separated from the other familie and guide due to the corona situation.
Hands-on best practice example : learn how to be a doctor in the MedLab
When entering this room I was particularly interested in this hands-on play approach where you are supposed to play a doctor. I was really impressed by the realism and details it got, and It really reminded me some parts of my previous biology cursus. This experience starts with this desk where you can pick up a pencil and a tablet. Then you can enter the rooms where sits the patients and pick one of them to play the doctor with.
First I took the paper here, then I went next to the patient and put the headphones on. When putting it ou can hear the story of the patient. Mine went trough a journey in the wild and went back with terrible stomachaches.
In the headphone it is explained that you can write the informations here and you have to take a blood sample. This part was really funny because the model had fake blood in it and I could really take something from its body so it added realism in the gesture.
Then, you have to enter to the analysis where you will have to make some research with the sample, and gather information.
I knew how to proceed until this step but got a little blocked through the analysis room. I remember that I didn’t understood how to analyze the blood sample, I was quite afraid to break the material. It would have been great to have more explainations about this part, but everything else was really comprehensible.
After my researches through the monitor I thought I had the good diagnostic, but couldn’t be really sure since I didn’t have the feedback from the blood sample analysis. The last step was to use those screen to note everyinformation. I remember that everything was in German so it was quite complicated to note every information. I think I would definitely have less problem if some english information where written.
Hands-on pratice example : what is green energy ?
After exploring the Experimentarium space, I went throught the sustainability room. Here is an other ambiance, with a lot of information on the wall. The graphics were really great but I think it was a bit too much to understand quickly the goal of each device. We could’nt really tell the difference between usefull explainations for the experiences and just basic information and drawing about the topic.
When entering this room, you have to collect a connected lamp, which allows you to access to the experiments. I liked the idea because it showed the physical aspect behind energy.
I tried to get through this activity and really had problems. Every information was written in German again, and the main information about the experiment was hidden under this round block, which was not really logical. An other thing that really confused me was that what seems like an ipad, was non interactiv. I finally understood that the goal of the experiment was to put the phones you can see here on the tablet, which is not what you are expected to do when seeing a tablet. So it reminded me that in order for an experiment to work, you always have to consider the affordance of the device you are using, and here the tablet was non appropriate for me. I would have understood if it was something like the lamp example we showed before. An other thing, was this old phone that I found quite unpractical because it needed my left hand. I would have prefered a headphone as it was used for the other experiments.
Underneath you can see a bicycle experiment, which I understood as a sensibilisation to consider more about cyclists and showing it as a good way to save energy.
At the end of the room, you can have an otherview of all your results through the key you used for all activites. I liked the idea and sensibilisation behind it.
Hands on approach : what is a car anyway ?
In the Cosa technology space, you can develop your own vehicle and get to know the technical components. I find it was really explaining the process behind the construction of the car : through the design that we can see on this print on the wall, to the engineering part with the material construction.
Dark box : escape pause through the space and sea
To finish my journey in the museum, I went trough the dark space big media installation. I was really impressed by the setup and really appreciated the experience. It allowed me to relax and change environment. I think this part is more entertaining than teaching, I can’t say I really rememberd the content about the story, but it was still appreciating.
Conclusion about the Cosa :
I was really impressed by the COSA center and would definitely like to go back to it with more time, and with all the facilities opened. The strenght of this museum for me, are the hands-on approaches and vision of a few professions related to science with the medical experiment and the car building. I could find a lot of similitudes between this museum and the previous example about the exploratorium because it axed on the hands on approach, there was an explainer and the center also proposes diverses activies and shows. The negative points were for me the accessibility to non german speaking people, the lisibility of information, and a few some affordance problems : there was a lot of information in each room and the hierarchy between the titles and content were not really visible. An other thing for me was the experience during the corona situation. I felt a bit unsecure doing the experiments since there was many hands on approaches, and I really question myself about the close future of science centers if this pandemie continues on a long term level.
Through this visit I really understood the social aspect behind science center. I think I may be part of those people which learn through interaction of social person and by mimicking things. Since I experienced problems without any guide (which was due to the corona situation), I really think it is something to take in account when designing an exhibition, in particular in science center. It reminds me of the questions about learning I mentioned at the begining of this subject about : what are the different types of learning, and how to imply every type in an exhibition ?
To finish, an other point to take into consideration is the affordance, continuity and conceptual models we have with the devices. It reminded me those principles from the Don Norman book , the design of everyday things that I read for my research on the portemonnaie project.
The Exploratorium is a museum of science, technology and arts in San Francisco.
The Exploratorium was founded by the physicist and educator Frank Oppenheimer and opened in 1969 at the Palace of Fine Arts its home until January 2, 2013. On April 17, 2013, the Exploratorium reopened at Piers 15 and 17 on San Francisco bay. The historic interior and exterior of Pier 15 was renovated extensively prior to the move, and is divided into several galleries mainly separated by content, including the physics of seeing and listening (Light and Sound), Human Behavior, Living Systems, Tinkering (including electricity and magnetism), the Outdoor Gallery, and the Bay Observatory Gallery, which focuses on local environment, weather, and landscape.
Since the museum’s founding, over 1,000 participatory exhibits have been created, approximately 600 of which are on the floor at any given time. The exhibit-building workshop space is contained within the museum and is open to view. In addition to the public exhibition space, the Exploratorium has been engaged in the professional development of teachers, science education reform, and the promotion of museums as informal education centers since its founding. Since Oppenheimer’s death in 1985, the Exploratorium has expanded into other domains, including its 50,000-page website and iPad app. It has also inspired an international network of participatory museums working to engage the public with general science education. The new Exploratorium building is also working to showcase environmental sustainability efforts as part of its goal to become the largest net-zero museum in the country. He has a major solar pannel to furnish its energy .
Field trip with explainers :
Dr Oppenheimer, the founder of the exploratorium had a special conviction about learning science. For him, having a real experience out of school was really important to learn. But he also knowed how it could be frustrated for someone not trained to understand it. That’s why he created this explainer program. Since 20 years, the explainers, special employees help the visitors to go through the museum. They are group of educators which help the visitor during the arrival : they guides the group to the check-in entry and help the teacher when they have classes. They will then guide the visitors through the museum and can help them when they have questions. There’s also some parts of the exhibitions where visitors can go through freely; but in case of need they always can find explainers at some special points inside the museum .
Plan and journey of the visitor :
Exhibits in the Exploratorium cover a range of subjects areas including human perception (vision, hearing, learning, cognition), the life sciences, physical phenomena (light, motion, electricity, waves, resonance, magnetism), local environment (water, wind, fig, rain, sun..) and the human bevior (cooperation, competition, sharing) .
Exploring a few examples of interaction of the exploratorium
Human perception : the Black Box Space of the exploratorium
A place for presenting artwork that inspires and astounds in mysterious and wondrous ways, the Black Box is a darkened 800-square-foot space that provides an ideal environment for media art installations. A commonly used metaphor in science and engineering, a black box describes something that has observable inputs and outputs and unseen inner workings. Something goes in and something comes out, but the process by which transformation occurs is “black” or unknown to the observer.
Drawing on the Exploratorium’s unique province as a hybrid museum presenting and developing artworks at the juncture of art, science, and technology, the Black Box features dynamic, innovative multimedia exhibitions to prompt curiosity and transformation.
Living systems : See the plankton populations that multiply or die in response to changing ocean conditions
This interactive display presents microscopic marine organisms called phytoplankton. Visitors use special lenses to see what the plankton look like and to find out which live in different parts of the ocean at various times of year.
“We adapted a scientific model created at MIT” says Associate Curator Jennifer Frazier. ”Because the exhibit is based on real data, if you were able to look in the ocean with a microscope, this is what you’d be likely to see. I’m excited about this exhibit because it continues the Exploratorium’s tradition of engaging people with amazing phenomena of the natural world—but with new scientific data, visitors can explore worlds at a scale they normally can’t see.”
Human behavior : cooperationthrough the survival game
Players struggle to keep their livestock herds alive and thriving—despite disease, drought, and other dangers. When your neighbor suffers a major loss, the question arises: Can you afford to share? But the real question may be, can you afford not to?
The Tinkering Studio is the heart of this gallery. In this immersive space, visitors use tools and materials to explore the intersection of science, art, and technology. They try experiments for the first time, or play along with other makers and artists. Whether expert of novice, they’re all learning together by making something that is personally meaningful.
Adjacent to the gallery is the museum’s exhibit-building workshop, where most of the exhibits are made. Open to public view, you’ll see our staff working with a variety of materials—woodworking tools, drills, and lathes, for example—and some of our exhibits in various stages of development .
After dark Tuedays : the museum is not only for kids !
Experience life After Dark, an evening series exclusively for adults that mixes cocktails, conversation, and playful, innovative science and art events.
Not a theater, cabaret, or gallery, After Dark contains aspects of all three. Each evening showcases a different topic—from music to sex to electricity—but all include a cash bar and an opportunity to play with our hundreds of hands-on exhibits.
This exhibition remains activ by distance during corona times with explainations about a different topic every thursday night on the american hour at 7 pm.
In this first application showed in live stream the solar eclipse that happened the 2 of July 2019.
Conclusion and opening about the exploratorium :
By analysing the different means of communication and interaction, I think I have found what makes the exploratorium a magical and particularly attractive place. Firstly, the interactions play on the multi-sensory appeal of touch, vision and sound. Visitors are fully active and can visualise scientific concepts in a simple way by manipulating objects. I have the impression that this museum makes particular use of the kinesthetic sense, and is very much focused on these hands on approaches. What I also find very impressive is the ability that this museum developped on all fronts: both in physics in the exhibitions with the galleries, but also with all the virtual content that can be found with the tickering, science snacks, applications and thursday evenings. I would really like to have the opportunity to visit this museum to learn more about these experiences.
With all that we have seen so far about science centres, I wonder what are the most effective ways to learn science and whether in the long run science centres will not revolutionise the way science is taught in schools.
Appraising the visitors by the use of interaction through films, sounds and materials
What is the engagement and what are the different types of visitor’s content apprehension ?
Engagement is the process of addressing a visitor directly by stimulating them and create positive memories or give new insights. For this to happens the designer has to make sure that he adresses all the target groups. The diverse audiences can be classified depending on the length of the visit (short, medium, long) or by the different interests and knowledges they have :
The expert : it’s a specialist, with a lot of knowledge around the topic. He often wants to sit and have specific informations to pursue his researches.
Frequent traveller : He has a reasonable foundation of knowledge and a general curiosity and is aware of museums.
The scout : he wants to travel freely in the space and have its own path to see the top layer informations. The challenge for the designer is to help him have a big picture without confusion.
The orienter : someone who has been here thanks to someone else or who doesn’t have any knowledge about the topic. He doesn’t know what to look for so is looking for something meaningful to them. Often children .
Depending of the type of museum, the visitor can go through different types of interaction and content :
Comprehension : History and natural science are more likely to feature contextual or thematic exhibitions where the artifacts, specimens or other objects on display are not intended to be studied as individual objects but related to each others. Graphics may be multilayered and combine words and images to aid visitor comprehension. The visitor is more actively engaged in the process of making relationships, studying tje graphics and labels as well as relating or comparing the objects to one another.
Discovery : An other mean of visitor engagement is the one in which the visitor explores a range of specimens appreciating individual examples. This is found in many natural history museums that have adapted visible storage means of display.
Interaction : the most kinesthetically involving mode of visitor apprehension is the one favored by many science centers and children’s museums ; in which staff, volunteers, exhibition apparatus or duplicate specimens identified as hands on Education Collection may be used to elicit a visitor response that triggers the transformative visitor experience, the discovery of meanings that affects the visitor’s values, interests, or attitude
Where is there interactivity in museums ?
Digital and multimedia techniques are currently providing more ways in which a museum can be participatory. Interactivity in museums can be found through materials, electronic devices, interactive displays, films and sounds. The museum experience becomes a high controlled environment with multi media and multi sensorial stimulis, immersing the visitor in the themes and contents of the exhibition.
In order to be efficient, there are several things to take in account when designing interaction for exhibitions.
For all interactives, visitors need to gain an idea of what they are interacting with, what is does and how it works in as short a time as possible, so approachability is important.
Visitors have limited time and patience for exploring and expending mental effort on an exhibit. There has to be some kind of reassuring feedback within seconds of the visitor beginning to use an interaction, so that he or she can see that their actions have had an effect.
If a new interface is introduced, this should be done consistently. The controls either have to be consistent with the way things are already done, and therefore rely on the visitor’s previous experience to help him or her to know what to do. It is also important to consider that some interfaces are intuitive to use, and call for learning whereas other are not .
Benefits of sound and films :
Moderne audiences have become accustomed to ambient sound and moving images. Exhibitors are increasingly aware of the diverse learning styles of the visiting public. Many visitors are reluctant to read labels and many are primarily driven by visual and aural stimuli. For them, film and sound are the preferred means of engaging with a subject. Increasingly, film, video and sound are used as scenographic elements in an exhibition theme, as part of an overall immersive environment.
Designers use every tool available to create a total display that communicates the storyline throught every element : light, materials, moving images, and sound. Projections or videos are often used to create a visual backdrop that overwhelms the senses of visitors and immerses them in the subject of the display. Powerful images and ambient sound effectively isolate visitors and draw their attention to a particular theme or idea. Overwhelming them with images, sounds, smells and textures forces them to engage directly with exhibition and its theme. This approach which is common to art installations as well as exhibitions often involves interactives devices.
Devices such as acoustic guides, pda (personal digital assistants) sound booths and kiosks are useful additions to any exhibition and are important in enabling the visitors with different learning styles (auditory) to engage with its subject. But there are number of limitating factors that the designer must take in account when designing the experience, and the help of specialists is requiered.
The designer must consider a lot of things when deciding on which materials he will put on an exhibition, especially when for childrens. They must evaluate their fire rating, durability an whether they are suitable for a specific purpose. In addition to fire retardancy, and a material’s aesthetic properies, the designer must check its durability, order times, price, sheet sizes, ease of maintenance and assembly time and the skills of the contractors involved.
In reality, many designers develop a palette of materials they use consistently, introducing new ones cautiously and only when they are sure they will perform. A sample board, materials glued to a board is useful to show the range of materials used for each different aspect of an exhibition and is often shown to the client as part of a design presentation. It allows the designer to make minute adjustments to colours and finishes to ensure a good result.
In many cases, the materials that are chosen will last for the duration of just one exhibition. Howevber in the light of green design imperatives, materials that can easily be reused for future shows are preferred. Particularly for commercial exhibitors, it is essential that colours and textures are consistent with the visual identity of the company, and that finishes are consistent with its branding material.
For museum displays some materials particularly those used inside showcases are tested for conservation purpose. A toxic glue that fixes a laminate or a painted surface might be a potential source of pollutants that can accelerate the deterioriation of sensitive artifacts.
Technical drawing and implementation of the exhibition
The models, sketches and drawing are important means of showing a coherent design strategy and to discuss and share important ideas with the client. At the end of the discussion the designer has to turn the provisional drawings into technical drawings that can be read by contractors and suppliers and provide the information for the final built project.
For each part of the exhibit, the designer produces drawings at different scales starting with the largest which show the overall site and how the built project will fit in. hese drawings are collected, numbered and given titles. It should include measures perspective and any technical details.
Technical drawings for exhibitions are similar to those produced by architects and interior designers. With all exhibition drawings, figures superimposed on section drawings speak very eloquently about the relationship of the exhibits to visitors. Drawing of a range of visitors interacting with displays helps to determine the correct height for display panels, controls, buttons, screens and other interactions points.
Drawing for interaction devices often need to show the exhibit or display in a number of modes to make clear how the user interacts with it and what changes are triggered by the interaction. This may also be specified in words on the drawings, detailing the stages in an interaction and the intended visitor experience.
Before a completed design is handed over, the designer produces a checklist, called a snagging list which highlights snags or construction defects. Then the last step of the exhibition can go with the assembly of all the contents of the exhibition.
Developing the design using sketches, models and plans
Once the exhibition strategy has been decided on, most designers start to develop their designs using scale models, sketches and rough drawings of layouts. At this stage, it is important to be aware of all obstructions and height restrictions int the exhibition space. The next phase is drawing and modelling, to create and test 3D solutions. During this second phase of the design, they have to evaluate the objects and doings includings graphics, materials and lighting.
The medium of communication in a museum exhibition consist of 3D objects in 3D spaces trough which the visitor moves. The way things are agenced depends of the type of exhibition and of the building.
During the early stages, it is important to show ideas quickly and intuitively to clients and collaborators without going too far down the wrong track. Scale human figures glued into models help the designer to appreciate how individual visitors will experience the exhibition. Individual interactions with single exhibits are best developed through sketches.
Once the rough sketches and models have been made, the final plan will begin to take shape.
It is very important in spatial design to show all elements involved in the exhibition. The factors to consider are : visitor navigation, how the exhibitions relate to each other, the ease and comfort of visitor circulation, the duration of the exhibition and the ease with which fire exit can be found.
The activities that take place in the exhibition suite are the exhibitions themselves and their accompanying programming such as openings, performances, lectures, guided or audio tours, and in gallery activities for families and schools.
Museum visitors come in all ages and sizes, bringing their diverse needs, interests, abilities and limitations such as : visitors ranging from 2 to 9 years old, visitors with mobility, visual, hearing or cognitive disabilities.
A very useful way of exploring the effectiveness of the access, adjancy and circulation design of the exhibition facilities in their entirety is to conduct a real or imaginary walk through of the space, putting yourself in the place of a particular category of user. The real walk through is to follow and crate visitor from the point of unloading through all the museum spaces and process, observing, listening to the comments of the the profesionnal staff, and taking note of concerns and difficulties as they arise .
All types of exhibition spaces or interpretive spaces have the common denominators of being structured to facilitate the visitor’s experience of art through the use of spatial design, light and color, material and finishes, smart technology, exhibit support.
Galleries for permanent display are planned to remain relatively unchanged for a number of years, spreading the cost of initial finishes, or exhibit elements over a longer period of time. Changing or temporary exhibition spaces are envisoned to permit a complete change of content and exhibitry up to several times a year, and often to allow the space to acommodate exhibitions of different scales and sizes, sometimes concurrently. The need for constant change means that such galleries need high level of flexibility and technological support.
Planning circulation :
Circulation planning enables the designer to determine what experiences visitors will have and the sequence in which they have them. Its quality has a major impact on visitor satisfaction and has to be carefully thinked.
The basic rules of spatial organiation are to create separate routes through a display, avoid pincpoints and blockages (too narrow blocages), to test how many individuals can move comfortably through the exhibition at one time, and how many visitors can see the displays. Every circulation plan should anticipate the need for visitors to find toilets or other commodities and should conform to local building regulations.
Designer should aim to create 3 m between displays whenever possible, leaving lots of clear space. Indeed, open spaces with good circulation are an invitation to the user. It is interesting to note that depending on the culture, the visitors don’t have the same way to progress through the rooms, sot his has to be taken into consideration when designing the space .
There are several organization paths possible :
Enhancing information : The role of graphics and lighting in an exhibition :
Graphics are a key part of the visual theatre of exhibitions and visitor communication. The appropriate treatment of text is essential to good exhibition design and if mishandled, the most likely cause of difficulties for visitors.
Directional signs that draw people into an exhibition are often called wayfinding graphics. These are intended to tease and entice visitors but they also serve the practical purpose of showing them where to go.
The graphics has to be read and understood from distance. Graphic designers develop a hierarchy of signs of different scales in a consistent style : external signage, medium sized areas headings, subheadings and diminushes to object labels .
To be effective, exhibition graphics should communicate a clear and consistent use of imagery and text avoiding confusion.
In many instances, the design of exhibition graphics is constrained by the client identity. Sometimes designers must follow the corporate font and use standardized layouts .
Designing for legibility :
Legibility refers to the clarity of letterforms, individually and when composed to form words and lines. It is related to the environment in which the text is situated. If it is mounted high on a wall, it must be bigger and clearer than text that is at eye level and can be read from close distance. The legibility is influenced by the contrast between the text colour and the colour of the background. Strong contrasts and good lighting can enhance legibility.
Designing for readability :
Readability refers to the ease with which a piece of text can be comprehended and is influenced by the words used and the complexity of the sentence structure.
The Ekrav method is a proven set of guidelines adressing legibility and readability issues, with recommandations for text writing and layouts. Designers should avoid long, densely written paragraphs.
A few graphic Rules :
Use simple language to express complex ideas
Use normal spoken word order
One main idea per line
Lines of above 45 letter, text broken into short paragraphs of 4 to 5 lines
Use the active form of verbes and subject early in the sentence
Avoid complicated constructions
Read text aloud and note natural pauses
The visual perception of exhibits, spatial relationships, surfaces and graphic treatments is governed by how they are lit. Designer uses lighting to interpret displays and to shape visitor’s perceptions of their experience. It plays central roles in exhibitions. Lighting is adjusted to emphasize changes in mood and tone.
The approach to lighting is determined by the nature of the exhibition venue. Daylight is powerful but has to be exluded if there are conservation considerations, because the UV emitted by the sun are harmful to many material and make then degrade. An other approach is to blank out all the windows and create a full artificial environment. The lighting design is recorded on a lighting plan and may be demonstrated with a 3D visual rendering.
For most exhibitions, the light focused on displays to emphasize the content.
In some cases, it may be important to create an even distribution of light throughout the space, regardless of the displays. Relaxation, teaching areas and important circulation routes are examples., but also when visitors are expected to do some physical activities such as interacting with some devices. It is interesting to note that visitors tend to find ambiant light more comfortable. The transition from low ambient light levels to areas of high ambient light must be carefully managed, to avoid sudden increases in light levels that are uncomfortable to the eyes [1,2].
Before explaining in detail the strategies used by Science Centers to promote learning and conveying message, it is necessary to have more insights about what are the basics of exhibition design, and what is the process used by exhibition designers.
I’ll present this methodology showing first the early research phase of the exhibition, the consideration of the space, light and graphics to emphasize the content, and the basics of interactivity and some tools used in exhibition design. Then, I will present the basics of science exhibition history and properties and I’ll show and analyze a few best pratices examples.
The 3 phases of the exhibition design process :
In his book, Exhibition design, David Dernie explains that the exhibit design processes goes through 3 phases :
Research phase : the exhibition idea or concept is created, tested and refined. The principal outcome of this phase is a deep institutional understanding of what the exhibition is about and why the museum is doing it at this time ; in this way, and at this scale. This understanding is recorded in the exhibition brief.
Design phase : is when the interpretive plan and all the research conducted to date is transformed into 3D through the creativity and insight of the designers working collaboratively with representatives of museum departments, interpretive planners, and evaluators.
Implementation phase : is the building and installation of the exhibition. Project and financial management are crucial to ensure on time and on budget culmination of the exhibition process.
Exhibition design is a reccurent and iterative process, adapting and adjusting to exhibitions of varying sizes and budets, level of complexity, purpose.
But why are exhibitions created in the first place ?
Exhibition are the principal means by which museums can be of service to us. They can confirm, question or shake our beliefs or they may arouse a new interest or deepen our understanding of ourselves and the world we live in. The purpose of museum exhibitions should be both educational and entertaining.
The first questions that the designers have to consider are ; why is the exhibition necessary, what is the best way to communicate content, who are the visitors and what kind of experience do they want to offer ?
Where does Museum Exhibition Ideas come from ?
Successful museum exhibition program should be both research based and market driven : the idea of an exhibition can come internally from the analysis and interest of the museum staff or can be oriented from the public interest and demand. The target audience depends on the type of exhibition, and sometimes designers need the insights of other professionnals such as educators when designer exhibits for children, for example.
Each museum staff member who wishes to do research should prepare an annual personal research plan. It should propose a methodology that addresses both the academic and the pratical implications, financial and project a schedule for completion of the research. Each individual’s research plan should be subject to review and approved.
Who is the exhibition for and why ?
Surveying visitors is crucial to learn who they are and why they attend, as well as which museum offering attracted their visit on that particular day. With this information, museums can better communicate with their current audiences and expand them, learn how to be relevant to their needs and to the needs of the communities in which they live, and determine how better to serve them .
The research phase : writing the brief
The development of an exhibit begins with a planning stage and meetings with the client to discuss their expectations of the exhibit. Every detail should be described in what is called a brief. It is the formulation of the understanding of the project by the designer, and it specify the tasks and details the informations to take in account. The client and the designer have different roles that can be resumed as follows :
When writing a brief, the designer has to consider those inputs :
– visual identity and brand information: it is important for the designer to understand the client’s identity so that he can then design content in accordance with this vision.
– target audience research: another important step is to obtain information about the main target(s) of the exhibition. The target audience depends on the type of exhibition, so for a science center, children are more likely to be targeted, whereas an art gallery would be more targeted at adults. The designer often uses external research teams to learn about the learning styles of his visitors, what he likes and dislikes, and what he does not like.
– reception of visitors: another preliminary step is to take into account the arrival areas and the organization of the arrival and visits according to the number of visitors. It is all the more crucial nowadays in times of covid to limit visitor entries.
– storyline: the storyline is a document describing the elements of the exhibition and quickly retracing the exhibition in zones, or different stages. It is a way of tracing the exhibition’s route. At this stage it is superficial.
– the tone of the exhibition: the tone of the exhibition is as important as the exhibition itself. It differs according to the type of content, and must be taken seriously especially for historical museums recounting wars or other dramatic events.
– the content document: this is a detailed descriptive list listing the different contents, their types and description that should be present in the exhibition. It can be more or less provided depending on the museum, and serves as a basis for the designer to design the museum experience.
– back home messages: the designer must discuss and agree with the client on the purpose of the exhibition and the key messages to be conveyed to visitors. The designer is not only responsible for the style of the exhibition but also for its comprehension and the overall visitor experience. It is also necessary to ensure continuity between the information displayed on the various media: the website, the leaflets and the content present in the exhibition. All this must allow the visitor to have a global view of the message to be retained.
– creative workshops: In general, designers designing an exhibition create creative workshops where they share their ideas and inspiration on their vision of the exhibition. This is the starting point of the creative phase but it also help the designer and the client to make sure they have the same language and tone when thinking about the exhibition .